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2<head>
3<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
4<title>Raleigh's Discoveries in the New World</title>
5<link rel="stylesheet" href="balisage-plain.css" type="text/css">
6<meta name="keywords" content="New World discoveries, American colonial history, English 16th century history">
7</head>
8<body>
9<div id="balisage-header"><h1 style="text-align: right; font-family: serif; margin:0.25em">
10<i>Balisage:</i> <small>The Markup Conference</small>
11</h1></div>
12<div lang="en" class="article">
13<div class="titlepage">
14<h2 class="article-title" id="idp282872">Raleigh's Discoveries in the New World</h2>
15<h3 class="subtitle"><i>The lure of vegetable culture</i></h3>
16<div class="author">
17<h3 class="author">Tonia Renae Gaillard</h3>
18<div class="affiliation">
19<p class="jobtitle">Department Chair</p>
20<p class="orgname">Quetrane University</p>
21</div>
22<h5 class="author-email"><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:tgaillard@quetrane.hist.edu">tgaillard@quetrane.hist.edu</a>&gt;</code></h5>
23</div>
24<div class="abstract">
25<p class="title"><b>Abstract</b></p>
26<p id="idp283648">In 1584, Queen Elizabeth I charged Sir Walter Raleigh to discover and colonize lands in
27        the New World on behalf of England. This article discusses the efforts and expeditions
28        organized under Raleigh's patronage to found a colony in the current-day North Carolina.
29        Going beyond the chronological history of the doomed Roanoke colony, the author provides
30        insights into relations between the colonists and their native counterparts, discusses the
31        botanical riches of the region, and argues that Raleigh's efforts did not end in failure, as
32        commonly might be thought.</p>
33</div>
34<hr>
35</div>
36<div class="toc">
37<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
38<dl>
39<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp264184" class="toc">Introduction</a></span></dt>
40<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp221368" class="toc">Securing a Permanent Colony in the Claimed Lands</a></span></dt>
41<dd><dl>
42<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp278696" class="toc">Native Plants and Wildlife</a></span></dt>
43<dd><dl>
44<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp424432" class="toc">Gourds</a></span></dt>
45<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp429752" class="toc">Tomatoes</a></span></dt>
46<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp433784" class="toc">Potatoes</a></span></dt>
47<dt><span class="section"><a href="#idp434984" class="toc">Fruits and Nuts</a></span></dt>
48</dl></dd>
49</dl></dd>
50<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#mul83" class="toc">Appendix A. The First Expeditionary Force’s Colony, 1585-1586
51    </a></span></dt>
52<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#mul88" class="toc">Appendix B. The Roanoke Colony, 1587
53    </a></span></dt>
54</dl>
55</div>
56<div class="section" id="idp264184">
57<h2 class="title" style="clear: both">Introduction</h2>
58<p id="idp264528">On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I of England charged Sir Walter Raleigh to<div class="blockquote"><blockquote class="blockquote">
59<p id="idp264872">discover, search, find out, and view such remote, heathen and barbarous lands,
60          countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited
61          by Christian People</p>
62<p class="attribution">— <a class="xref" href="#thorpe97" id="idp265344">Thorpe 1997</a></p>
63</blockquote></div> That same year Raleigh sent two captains, Philip Amades and Arthur Barlowe, from
64      England to Hispaniola and the Canary Islands; from there, the captains were instructed to
65      scout the lands northeast of those already claimed by Spain, to wit, Florida. This land — now
66      encompassing the Carolinas and Virginia — was claimed on behalf of England and named
67        <q>Virginia,</q> in honor of the <q>Virgin Queen.</q></p>
68<p id="idp273064">Information processing, especially text markup, was primitive in the colony. For example,
69      most text stores were in XML! Documents may have looked like this:
70      <pre class="programlisting" id="idp273368">&lt;teiHeader&gt;
71  &lt;fileDesc&gt;
72    &lt;titleStmt&gt;
73      &lt;title&gt;Farming in the New World&lt;/title&gt;
74      ...
75    &lt;/titleStmt&gt;
76  &lt;/fileDesc&gt;
77&lt;/teiHeader&gt;</pre>
78      Notice the paired Tags: <code class="code">&lt;title&gt;</code> and <code class="code">&lt;/title&gt;</code> and the
79      primitive use of indenting. Unusual features of the colonists data processing practices included:<div class="variablelist" id="idp274544"><table border="0" class="variablelist">
80<col valign="top" align="left">
81<tbody>
82<tr id="idp274672">
83<td class="varlist-term"><p><span class="term">Tags</span></p></td>
84<td class="varlist-item"><p id="idp219936">Meaningful descriptions of the information enclosed by the markers</p></td>
85</tr>
86<tr id="idp220328">
87<td class="varlist-term"><p><span class="term">Balance</span></p></td>
88<td class="varlist-item"><p id="idp220792">All markup is both opened and closed (or explicitly empty)</p></td>
89</tr>
90</tbody>
91</table></div>
92    </p>
93</div>
94<div class="section" id="idp221368">
95<h2 class="title" style="clear: both">Securing a Permanent Colony in the Claimed Lands</h2>
96<p id="idp221744">With land claimed in the New World, an expedition was mounted to establish a settlement.
97      The first expedition failed. Led by Sir Richard Grenville in April 1585, it encompassed 600
98      men of which 105 remained in the colony while Grenville returned to England for additional
99      provisions. (<span class="ital">See</span>
100      <a class="xref" href="#mul83" title="The First Expeditionary Force’s Colony, 1585-1586 This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
101          Colony in 1585. (See
102          Durant, David N., Raleigh’s Lost Colony, Appendix I, Atheneum,
103            NY: 1981.)
104    ">Appendix A</a>.) However, when almost a year passed without Grenville’s return, the
105      remainder of the expeditionary force took advantage of Sir Francis Drake’s arrival to seek
106      return passage to England. <sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul74" class="footnoteref" id="mul74-ref">[1]</a></sup>
107    </p>
108<p id="idp277352">The second expedition, organized by John White in 1587, fared better. It sailed with seven
109      ships filled with Devon families intent upon establishing a colony in that part of Virginia
110      called Roanoke, a word deriving from the speech of native peoples. [<a class="xref" href="#mul88" title="The Roanoke Colony, 1587 This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
111          Colony in 1587, as well as the names of children born at the colony. (See
112          Durant, David N., Raleigh’s Lost Colony, Appendix I, Atheneum,
113            NY: 1981.)
114    ">Appendix B</a>]
115      Two years after founding the <q>Cittie of Raleigh,</q> houses had been built for
116      almost all families residing in the colony, and the colony had celebrated the birth of its
117      first children born in the New World. The first child, grandchild of John White and child of
118      Ananias and Eleanor Dare, was been named Virginia in honor of the sovereign.</p>
119<div class="section" id="idp278696">
120<h3 class="title" style="clear: both">Native Plants and Wildlife</h3>
121<p id="idp279016">The European settlers found the New World abundant with commodities <q>known to
122          yield victual and sustenance of man’s life</q>. The first expeditionary force noted
123        that a great variety of berries grew wildly, including raspberries, blueberries, and
124        strawberries. Along with maize, native grain, which could be made into bread, grew in the
125        area. Two other plants — more properly called roots — which could be saved for winter
126        consumption were <q>cassida</q> and <q>chyna.</q> The settlers discovered
127        that while some roots could be eaten much in appearance as they were dug, others had to be
128        boiled before use as a foodstuff. As more fully described below, other plants included
129        beans, and several crops previously unknown to the Europeans: <div class="itemizedlist" id="idp421712"><ul>
130<li id="idp421840"><p id="idp421968"><q>macocqwer</q> (gourds),</p></li>
131<li id="idp422352"><p id="idp422480"><q>melden</q> (an herb),</p></li>
132<li id="idp422864"><p id="idp422992"><q>planta solis</q> (sunflower — used in a type of bread, as well as for
133              broth),</p></li>
134<li id="idp423536"><p id="idp423664">peas (powdered in a mortar), and</p></li>
135<li id="idp423920"><p id="idp424048">potatoes.</p></li>
136</ul></div>
137      </p>
138<div class="section" id="idp424432">
139<h4 class="title" style="clear: both">Gourds</h4>
140<p id="idp424752">The native people grew a variety of large broad-leafed, ground-covering vines which
141          produced what they called <q>macocqwer</q> or gourds. (<span class="ital">See</span>
142          <a class="xref" href="#gourds" title="Gourds">Figure 1</a>.) Varying in color among shades of green, yellow, and orange,
143          these gourds served a number of functions, not chief of which was as a food source. There
144          were two distinct types, soft-shelled and hard-shelled. Of particular interest to the
145          settlers were pumpkins; grown throughout the summer, this gourd remained in the fields
146          until late autumn’s frost. Following harvest, the gourd could be stored throughout the
147          winter and its flesh made into stews.</p>
148<div class="figure" id="gourds">
149<p class="title">Figure 1: Gourds</p>
150<div class="figure-contents">
151<div class="mediaobject" id="idp427408"><img alt="jpg image (19450212-2.jpg)" src="19450212-2.jpg" width="50%"></div>
152<div class="caption"><p id="idp428408">While gourds, pumpkins and squashes were new to the English, they were soon
153              discovered to be very useful for warding off starvation.</p></div>
154</div>
155</div>
156<p id="idp428880">However, far more important was the hard-skinned gourd. The value of this gourd lay
157          not in its potential as a food source, but rather as a container and serving vessel. Once
158          dried, these gourds were cut and hollowed for use as storage containers, as well as for
159          bowls, ladles, cups, and other types of serving utensils. Indeed, since gourds grew in a
160          variety of shapes and sizes, particular gourds could be selected for their resemblance to
161          the items sought. For the adventurous, the durable objects could be carved and decorated
162          with plant dyes.</p>
163</div>
164<div class="section" id="idp429752">
165<h4 class="title" style="clear: both">Tomatoes</h4>
166<p id="idp430072">Also new to the colonists was the tomato. (<span class="ital">See</span>
167          <a class="xref" href="#Tomatoes" title="Tomatoes">Figure 2</a>.) Tomatoes were described as thin-skinned succulent fruits with
168          pulpy interiors. Almost <q>Bristol red</q> in color, the fruit was somewhat round
169          in form and the size of a chicken’s egg — not anything approaching the size of modern,
170          cultivated varieties. Of particular importance was the plant’s fecundity. The flowering,
171          bush-like plant bore fruit over a period of months. Thus, a plant could produce as many as
172          15 tomatoes at a given time.</p>
173<div class="figure" id="Tomatoes">
174<p class="title">Figure 2: Tomatoes</p>
175<div class="figure-contents">
176<div class="mediaobject" id="idp432328"><img alt="jpg image (19450212-1.jpg)" src="19450212-1.jpg" width="50%"></div>
177<div class="caption"><p id="idp433328">Tomatoes were among the new fruits discovered in the New World.</p></div>
178</div>
179</div>
180</div>
181<div class="section" id="idp433784">
182<h4 class="title" style="clear: both">Potatoes</h4>
183<p id="idp434104">Another root that proved beneficial was the potato. Similarly, to the
184            <q>cassida</q> mentioned earlier, potatoes were considered roots rather than
185          plants, as the edible portion of the plant lay underground. Given the curious nature of
186          this legume, several examples were brought back from the New World. In fact, Raleigh
187          attempted to cultivate the potato at his estate, Youghall, in Ireland.</p>
188</div>
189<div class="section" id="idp434984">
190<h4 class="title" style="clear: both">Fruits and Nuts</h4>
191<p id="idp435304">The colony abounded with a wealth of fruits and nuts, some not previously known to the
192          Europeans. In addition to mulberries, strawberries, and blueberries already mentioned, one
193          of the more curious fruits found was called <q>medlar</q> by the natives. Medlar
194          was a fruit not unlike cherries in size and color, but with a much sweeter taste. An
195          equally unusual fruit was <q>metaqvesvnnaqvk</q>; notwithstanding its red fruit,
196          that plant’s more important feature lay in the cochinile insects which fed upon its
197          prickly thick leaves <sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul90" class="footnoteref" id="mul90-ref">[2]</a></sup>.</p>
198<p id="idp437256">Equally abundant in variety and size were nuts. In addition to chestnuts and walnuts,
199          the natives <q>harvested</q> no less than five types of <q>acorns</q>.
200          These somewhat small nuts were either dried in a manner similar to that used in England
201          for malt, or were boiled for broth.</p>
202<div class="table-wrapper" id="idp438144">
203<p class="title">Table I</p>
204<div class="caption"><p id="idp438400">North American Native Plants</p></div>
205<table class="table">
206<col align="right" valign="top" span="1">
207<col valign="top" span="1">
208<col align="center" valign="top" span="1">
209<thead><tr valign="top">
210<th>Use</th>
211<th>Plant Part</th>
212<th>Examples</th>
213</tr></thead>
214<tbody>
215<tr valign="top"><td rowspan="8"><span class="bold">Vegetables</span></td></tr>
216<tr valign="top">
217<td rowspan="2">Seeds</td>
218<td>Corn</td>
219</tr>
220<tr valign="top"><td>Beans</td></tr>
221<tr valign="top">
222<td rowspan="3">Fruits</td>
223<td>Squash</td>
224</tr>
225<tr valign="top"><td>Peppers</td></tr>
226<tr valign="top"><td>Tomatoes</td></tr>
227<tr valign="top">
228<td rowspan="2">Roots</td>
229<td>Potatoes</td>
230</tr>
231<tr valign="top"><td>Sweet Potatoes</td></tr>
232<tr valign="top"><td rowspan="4"><span class="bold">Teas</span></td></tr>
233<tr valign="top">
234<td rowspan="2">Leaves</td>
235<td>Mountain Mint (Namewuskons)</td>
236</tr>
237<tr valign="top"><td>Dawn Mint (Wabinowusk)</td></tr>
238<tr valign="top">
239<td>Berries</td>
240<td>Wintergreen</td>
241</tr>
242</tbody>
243</table>
244</div>
245</div>
246</div>
247</div>
248<div class="appendix" id="mul83">
249<h2 class="title" style="clear: both">Appendix A. The First Expeditionary Force’s Colony, 1585-1586 <sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul5" class="footnoteref" id="mul5-ref">[3]</a></sup>
250    </h2>
251<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp452152"><ul>
252<li id="idp452280"><p id="idp452408">Master Philip Amades, Admirall of the countrie</p></li>
253<li id="idp452720"><p id="idp452848">Master Hariot</p></li>
254<li id="idp453128"><p id="idp453256">Master Acton</p></li>
255<li id="idp453536"><p id="idp453664">Master Edward Stafford</p></li>
256<li id="idp453952"><p id="idp454080">Thomas Luddington</p></li>
257<li id="idp454360"><p id="idp454488">Master Marvyn</p></li>
258<li id="idp454768"><p id="idp454896">Master Gardyner</p></li>
259<li id="idp455176"><p id="idp455304">Captaine Vaughan</p></li>
260<li id="idp455584"><p id="idp455712">Master Kendall</p></li>
261<li id="idp455992"><p id="idp456120">Master Prideox</p></li>
262<li id="idp456400"><p id="idp456528">Robert Holecroft</p></li>
263<li id="idp456808"><p id="idp456936">Rise Courtney</p></li>
264<li id="idp457216"><p id="idp457344">Master Hugh Rogers</p></li>
265<li id="idp457624"><p id="idp457752">Thomas Foxe</p></li>
266<li id="idp458024"><p id="idp458152">Edward Nugent</p></li>
267<li id="idp458432"><p id="idp458560">Darby Glande</p></li>
268<li id="idp458840"><p id="idp458968">Edward Kelle</p></li>
269<li id="idp459248"><p id="idp459376">John Gostigo</p></li>
270<li id="idp459656"><p id="idp459784">Erasmus Clefs</p></li>
271<li id="idp460064"><p id="idp460192">Edward Ketcheman</p></li>
272<li id="idp460472"><p id="idp460600">John Linsey</p></li>
273<li id="idp460872"><p id="idp461000">Thomas Rottenbury</p></li>
274<li id="idp461280"><p id="idp461408">Roger Deane</p></li>
275<li id="idp461680"><p id="idp461808">John Harris</p></li>
276<li id="idp462080"><p id="idp462208">Frauncis Norris</p></li>
277<li id="idp462488"><p id="idp462616">Matthewe Lyne</p></li>
278<li id="idp462896"><p id="idp463024">Edward Kettell</p></li>
279<li id="idp463304"><p id="idp463432">Thomas Wisse</p></li>
280<li id="idp463712"><p id="idp463840">Master Thomas Harvie</p></li>
281<li id="idp464128"><p id="idp464256">Master Snelling</p></li>
282<li id="idp464536"><p id="idp464664">Master Anthony Russe</p></li>
283<li id="idp464952"><p id="idp465080">Master Allyne</p></li>
284<li id="idp465360"><p id="idp465488">Master Michel Polyson</p></li>
285<li id="idp465776"><p id="idp465904">John Cage</p></li>
286<li id="idp466176"><p id="idp466304">Thomas Parre</p></li>
287<li id="idp466584"><p id="idp466712">William Randes</p></li>
288<li id="idp466992"><p id="idp467120">Geffrey Churchman</p></li>
289<li id="idp467400"><p id="idp467528">William Farthowe</p></li>
290<li id="idp467808"><p id="idp467936">John Taylor</p></li>
291<li id="idp468208"><p id="idp468336">Philppe Robyns</p></li>
292<li id="idp468616"><p id="idp468744">Thomas Phillipes</p></li>
293<li id="idp469024"><p id="idp469152">Valentine Beale</p></li>
294<li id="idp469432"><p id="idp469560">James Skinner</p></li>
295<li id="idp469840"><p id="idp469968">George Eseven</p></li>
296<li id="idp470248"><p id="idp470376">John Chaundeler</p></li>
297<li id="idp470656"><p id="idp470784">Philip Blunt</p></li>
298<li id="idp471064"><p id="idp471192">Richard Poore</p></li>
299<li id="idp471472"><p id="idp471600">Robert Yong</p></li>
300<li id="idp471872"><p id="idp472000">Marmaduke Constable</p></li>
301<li id="idp472280"><p id="idp472408">Thomas Hesket</p></li>
302<li id="idp472688"><p id="idp472816">William Wasse</p></li>
303<li id="idp473096"><p id="idp473224">John Fever</p></li>
304<li id="idp473496"><p id="idp473624">Daniel</p></li>
305<li id="idp473896"><p id="idp474024">Thomas Taylor</p></li>
306<li id="idp474304"><p id="idp474432">Richard Humfrey</p></li>
307<li id="idp474712"><p id="idp474840">John Wright</p></li>
308<li id="idp475112"><p id="idp475240">Gabriell North</p></li>
309<li id="idp475520"><p id="idp475648">Robert Biscombe</p></li>
310<li id="idp475928"><p id="idp476056">William Backhouse</p></li>
311<li id="idp476336"><p id="idp476464">William White</p></li>
312<li id="idp476744"><p id="idp476872">Henry Potkin</p></li>
313<li id="idp477152"><p id="idp477280">Dennis Barnes</p></li>
314<li id="idp477560"><p id="idp477688">Joseph Borges</p></li>
315<li id="idp477968"><p id="idp478096">Doughan Gannes</p></li>
316<li id="idp478376"><p id="idp478504">William Tenche</p></li>
317<li id="idp478784"><p id="idp478912">Randall Latham</p></li>
318<li id="idp479192"><p id="idp479320">Thomas Hulme</p></li>
319<li id="idp479600"><p id="idp479728">Walter Myll</p></li>
320<li id="idp480000"><p id="idp480128">Richard Gilbert</p></li>
321<li id="idp480408"><p id="idp480536">Steven Pomarie</p></li>
322<li id="idp480816"><p id="idp480944">John Brocke</p></li>
323<li id="idp481216"><p id="idp481344">Bennet Harrye</p></li>
324<li id="idp481624"><p id="idp481752">James Stevenson</p></li>
325<li id="idp482032"><p id="idp482160">Charles Stevenson</p></li>
326<li id="idp482440"><p id="idp482568">Christopher Lowde</p></li>
327<li id="idp482848"><p id="idp482976">Jeremie Man</p></li>
328<li id="idp483248"><p id="idp483376">James Mason</p></li>
329<li id="idp483648"><p id="idp483776">David Salter</p></li>
330<li id="idp484056"><p id="idp484184">Richard Ireland</p></li>
331<li id="idp484464"><p id="idp484592">Thomas Bookener</p></li>
332<li id="idp484872"><p id="idp485000">William Philippes</p></li>
333<li id="idp485280"><p id="idp485408">Randall Mayne</p></li>
334<li id="idp485688"><p id="idp485816">Bennet Chappell</p></li>
335<li id="idp486096"><p id="idp486224">Richard Sare</p></li>
336<li id="idp486504"><p id="idp486632">James Lasie</p></li>
337<li id="idp486904"><p id="idp487032">Smolkin</p></li>
338<li id="idp487304"><p id="idp487432">Thomas Smart</p></li>
339<li id="idp487712"><p id="idp487840">Robert</p></li>
340<li id="idp488112"><p id="idp488240">John Evans</p></li>
341<li id="idp488512"><p id="idp488640">Roger Large</p></li>
342<li id="idp488912"><p id="idp489040">Humfrey Garden</p></li>
343<li id="idp489320"><p id="idp489448">Frauncis Whitton</p></li>
344<li id="idp489728"><p id="idp489856">Rowland Griffyn</p></li>
345<li id="idp490136"><p id="idp490264">William Millard</p></li>
346<li id="idp490544"><p id="idp490672">John Twyt</p></li>
347<li id="idp490944"><p id="idp491072">Edwarde Seklemore</p></li>
348<li id="idp491352"><p id="idp491480">John Anwike</p></li>
349<li id="idp491752"><p id="idp491880">Christopher Marshall</p></li>
350<li id="idp492168"><p id="idp492296">David Williams</p></li>
351<li id="idp492576"><p id="idp492704">Nicholas Swabber</p></li>
352<li id="idp492984"><p id="idp493112">Edward Chipping</p></li>
353<li id="idp493392"><p id="idp493520">Sylvester Beching</p></li>
354<li id="idp493800"><p id="idp493928">Vincent Cheyne</p></li>
355<li id="idp494208"><p id="idp494336">Haunce Walters</p></li>
356<li id="idp494616"><p id="idp494744">Edward Barecombe</p></li>
357<li id="idp495024"><p id="idp495152">Thomas Skevelabs</p></li>
358<li id="idp495432"><p id="idp495560">William Walters</p></li>
359</ul></div>
360</div>
361<div class="appendix" id="mul88">
362<h2 class="title" style="clear: both">Appendix B. The Roanoke Colony, 1587 <sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul4" class="footnoteref" id="mul4-ref">[4]</a></sup>
363    </h2>
364<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp498112"><ul>
365<li id="idp498240">
366<p id="idp498368">Men</p>
367<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp498560"><ul>
368<li id="idp498688"><p id="idp498816">John White [Governor]</p></li>
369<li id="idp499104"><p id="idp499232">Roger Bailie [Assistant]</p></li>
370<li id="idp499520"><p id="idp499648">Ananias Dare [Assistant]</p></li>
371<li id="idp499936"><p id="idp500064">Christopher Cooper [Assistant]</p></li>
372<li id="idp500360"><p id="idp500488">Thomas Stevens [Assistant]</p></li>
373<li id="idp500776"><p id="idp500904">John Sampson [Assistant]</p></li>
374<li id="idp501192"><p id="idp501320">Dyonis Harvie [Assistant]</p></li>
375<li id="idp501608"><p id="idp501736">Roger Prat [Assistant]</p></li>
376<li id="idp502024"><p id="idp502152">George Howe [Assistant]</p></li>
377<li id="idp502440"><p id="idp502568">Simon Fernando [Assistant]</p></li>
378<li id="idp502856"><p id="idp502984">William Willes</p></li>
379<li id="idp503264"><p id="idp503392">John Brooke</p></li>
380<li id="idp503664"><p id="idp503792">Cutbert White</p></li>
381<li id="idp504072"><p id="idp504200">John Bright</p></li>
382<li id="idp504472"><p id="idp504600">Clement Tayler</p></li>
383<li id="idp504880"><p id="idp505008">William Sole</p></li>
384<li id="idp505288"><p id="idp505416">John Cotsmur</p></li>
385<li id="idp505696"><p id="idp505824">Humfrey Newton</p></li>
386<li id="idp506104"><p id="idp506232">Thomas Colman</p></li>
387<li id="idp506512"><p id="idp506640">Thomas Gramme</p></li>
388<li id="idp506920"><p id="idp507048">Nicholas Johnson</p></li>
389<li id="idp507328"><p id="idp507456">Thomas Warner</p></li>
390<li id="idp507736"><p id="idp507864">Anthony Cage</p></li>
391<li id="idp508144"><p id="idp508272">John Jones</p></li>
392<li id="idp508544"><p id="idp508672">John Tydway</p></li>
393<li id="idp508944"><p id="idp509072">Ambrose Viccars</p></li>
394<li id="idp509352"><p id="idp509480">Edmond English</p></li>
395<li id="idp509760"><p id="idp509888">Thomas Topan</p></li>
396<li id="idp510168"><p id="idp510296">Henry Berrye</p></li>
397<li id="idp510576"><p id="idp510704">Richard Berrye</p></li>
398<li id="idp510984"><p id="idp511112">John Spendlove</p></li>
399<li id="idp511392"><p id="idp511520">John Hemmington</p></li>
400<li id="idp511800"><p id="idp511928">Thomas Butler</p></li>
401<li id="idp512208"><p id="idp512336">Edward Powell</p></li>
402<li id="idp512616"><p id="idp512744">John Burden</p></li>
403<li id="idp513016"><p id="idp513144">James Hynde</p></li>
404<li id="idp513416"><p id="idp513544">Thomas Ellis</p></li>
405<li id="idp513824"><p id="idp513952">William Browne</p></li>
406<li id="idp514232"><p id="idp514360">Michael Myllet</p></li>
407<li id="idp514640"><p id="idp514768">Thomas Smith</p></li>
408<li id="idp515048"><p id="idp515176">Richard Kemme</p></li>
409<li id="idp515456"><p id="idp515584">Thomas Harris</p></li>
410<li id="idp515864"><p id="idp515992">Richard Taverner</p></li>
411<li id="idp516272"><p id="idp516400">John Earnest</p></li>
412<li id="idp516680"><p id="idp516808">Henry Johnson</p></li>
413<li id="idp517088"><p id="idp517216">John Starte</p></li>
414<li id="idp517488"><p id="idp517616">Richard Darige</p></li>
415<li id="idp517896"><p id="idp518024">William Lucas</p></li>
416<li id="idp518304"><p id="idp518432">Arnold Archard</p></li>
417<li id="idp518712"><p id="idp518840">John Wright</p></li>
418<li id="idp519112"><p id="idp519240">William Dutton</p></li>
419<li id="idp519520"><p id="idp519648">Morris Allen</p></li>
420<li id="idp519928"><p id="idp520056">William Waters</p></li>
421<li id="idp520336"><p id="idp520464">Richard Arthur</p></li>
422<li id="idp520744"><p id="idp520872">John Chapman</p></li>
423<li id="idp521152"><p id="idp521280">William Clement</p></li>
424<li id="idp521560"><p id="idp521688">Robert Little</p></li>
425<li id="idp521968"><p id="idp522096">Hugh Tayler</p></li>
426<li id="idp522368"><p id="idp522496">Richard Wildye</p></li>
427<li id="idp522776"><p id="idp522904">Lewes Wotton</p></li>
428<li id="idp523184"><p id="idp523312">Michael Bishop</p></li>
429<li id="idp523592"><p id="idp523720">Henry Browne</p></li>
430<li id="idp524000"><p id="idp524128">Marke Bennet</p></li>
431<li id="idp524408"><p id="idp524536">John Gibbes</p></li>
432<li id="idp524808"><p id="idp524936">John Stilman</p></li>
433<li id="idp525216"><p id="idp525344">Robert Wilkinson</p></li>
434<li id="idp525624"><p id="idp525752">Peter Little</p></li>
435<li id="idp526032"><p id="idp526160">John Wyles</p></li>
436<li id="idp526432"><p id="idp526560">Brian Wyles</p></li>
437<li id="idp526832"><p id="idp526960">George Martyn</p></li>
438<li id="idp527240"><p id="idp527368">Hugh Pattenson</p></li>
439<li id="idp527648"><p id="idp527776">Martyn Sutton</p></li>
440<li id="idp528056"><p id="idp528184">John Farre</p></li>
441<li id="idp528456"><p id="idp528584">John Bridger</p></li>
442<li id="idp528864"><p id="idp528992">Griffen Jones</p></li>
443<li id="idp529272"><p id="idp529400">Richard Shaberdge</p></li>
444<li id="idp529680"><p id="idp529808">James Lasie</p></li>
445<li id="idp530080"><p id="idp530208">John Cheven</p></li>
446<li id="idp530480"><p id="idp530608">Thomas Hewet</p></li>
447<li id="idp530888"><p id="idp531016">William Berde</p></li>
448<li id="idp531296"><p id="idp531424">Henry Rufoote</p></li>
449<li id="idp531704"><p id="idp531832">Richard Tomkins</p></li>
450<li id="idp532112"><p id="idp532240">Henry Dorrell</p></li>
451<li id="idp532520"><p id="idp532648">Charles Florrie</p></li>
452<li id="idp532928"><p id="idp533056">Henry Mylton</p></li>
453<li id="idp533336"><p id="idp533464">Henry Payne</p></li>
454<li id="idp533736"><p id="idp533864">Thomas Harris</p></li>
455<li id="idp534144"><p id="idp534272">William Nicholes</p></li>
456<li id="idp534552"><p id="idp534680">Thomas Phevens</p></li>
457<li id="idp534960"><p id="idp535088">John Borden</p></li>
458<li id="idp535360"><p id="idp535488">Thomas Scot</p></li>
459</ul></div>
460</li>
461<li id="idp535888">
462<p id="idp536016">Women</p>
463<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp536224"><ul>
464<li id="idp536352"><p id="idp536480">Elyoner Dare</p></li>
465<li id="idp536760"><p id="idp536888">Margery Harvie</p></li>
466<li id="idp537168"><p id="idp537296">Agnes Wood</p></li>
467<li id="idp537568"><p id="idp537696">Wenefrid Powell</p></li>
468<li id="idp537976"><p id="idp538104">Joyce Archard</p></li>
469<li id="idp538384"><p id="idp538512">Jane Jones</p></li>
470<li id="idp538784"><p id="idp538912">Elizabeth Glane</p></li>
471<li id="idp539192"><p id="idp539320">Jane Pierce</p></li>
472<li id="idp539592"><p id="idp539720">Audry Tappan</p></li>
473<li id="idp540000"><p id="idp540128">Alis Chapman</p></li>
474<li id="idp540408"><p id="idp540536">Emme Merrimoth</p></li>
475<li id="idp540816"><p id="idp540944">Colman</p></li>
476<li id="idp541216"><p id="idp541344">Margaret Lawrence</p></li>
477<li id="idp541624"><p id="idp541752">Joan Warren</p></li>
478<li id="idp542024"><p id="idp542152">Jane Mannering</p></li>
479<li id="idp542432"><p id="idp542560">Rose Payne</p></li>
480<li id="idp542832"><p id="idp542960">Elizabeth Viccars</p></li>
481</ul></div>
482</li>
483<li id="idp543368">
484<p id="idp543496">Children</p>
485<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp543704"><ul>
486<li id="idp543832"><p id="idp543960">John Sampson</p></li>
487<li id="idp544240"><p id="idp544368">Robert Ellis</p></li>
488<li id="idp544648"><p id="idp544776">Ambrose Viccars</p></li>
489<li id="idp545056"><p id="idp545184">Thomas Archard</p></li>
490<li id="idp545464"><p id="idp545592">Thomas Humfrey</p></li>
491<li id="idp545872"><p id="idp546000">Tomas Smart</p></li>
492<li id="idp546272"><p id="idp546400">George Howe</p></li>
493<li id="idp546672"><p id="idp546800">John Prat</p></li>
494<li id="idp547072"><p id="idp547200">William Wythers</p></li>
495</ul></div>
496</li>
497<li id="idp547608">
498<p id="idp547736">Children Born at the Colony</p>
499<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp547960"><ul>
500<li id="idp548088"><p id="idp548216">Virginia Dare</p></li>
501<li id="idp548496"><p id="idp548624">Harvye</p></li>
502</ul></div>
503</li>
504<li id="idp549024">
505<p id="idp549152">Native Peoples (who having been in England returned to the colony)</p>
506<div class="itemizedlist" id="idp549416"><ul>
507<li id="idp549544"><p id="idp549672">Manteo</p></li>
508<li id="idp549944"><p id="idp550072">Towaye</p></li>
509</ul></div>
510</li>
511</ul></div>
512</div>
513<div class="bibliography" id="idp550600">
514<h2 class="title" style="clear:both">Bibliography</h2>
515<p class="bibliomixed" id="thorpe97"><a href="#idp265344">[Thorpe 1997] </a>Thorpe, Francis Newton, ed.<span class="ital">Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh: 1584,</span> in <q>The Federal and States
516        Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and
517        Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America</q> (compiled under Act
518      of Congress of June 30, 1906). [online]. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909.
519      The Avalon Project. Co-Dir. William C. Fray &amp; Lisa A. Span. © 1997 [cited 8 Apr
520        1998].<a href="http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/raleigh.htm" class="link" target="_new">http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/raleigh.htm</a>.</p>
521<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul94">[DeFord 1997] DeFord, Susan. <span class="ital">Tobacco: The Noxious Weed That Built a Nation,</span> Special to <q>The Washington
522        Post</q> (May 14, 1997) at H01. [online]. © 1997 [cited 29 May 1998].
523        <a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp~srv/intereact/longterm/horizon/051497/tobacco.htm" class="link" target="_new">http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp~srv/intereact/longterm/horizon/051497/tobacco.htm</a>.</p>
524<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul95">[Tobacco] <span class="ital">Part 2. The Story of the
525        Arrival and First Uses of Tobacco in Europe,</span> in <q>The History of
526        Tobacco</q>. [online]. [cited 14 Apr
527        1998].<a href="http://www.tobacco.co.uk/library/history.html#part2" class="link" target="_new">http://www.tobacco.co.uk/library/history.html#part2</a>.</p>
528<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul96">[Lane] Lane, Ralph. <q>The Colony at Roanoake —
529        1586</q>. [online]. [cited 13 Apr
530        1998].<a href="http://www.nationalcenter.inter.net/ColonyofRoanoke.html" class="link" target="_new">http://www.nationalcenter.inter.net/ColonyofRoanoke.html</a>.</p>
531<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul97">[Prindle 1996a] Prindle, Tara.<span class="ital">Indian
532        Corn,</span> excerpted from <q>Teaching about Thanksgiving</q>. [online]. Fourth
533      World Documentation Project. Native American Technology and Art. © 1996 [cited 14 Apr
534        1998].<a href="http://www.lib.uconn.edu/NativeTech/cornhusk/cornfwdp.html" class="link" target="_new">http://www.lib.uconn.edu/NativeTech/cornhusk/cornfwdp.html</a>.</p>
535<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul98">[Prindle 1996b] Prindle, Tara. <q>Native American
536        History of Corn</q>. [online]. Native American Technology and Art. © 1996 [cited 14 Apr
537        1998].<a href="http://www.lib.uconn.edu/NativeTech/cornhusk/cornhusk.html" class="link" target="_new">http://www.lib.uconn.edu/NativeTech/cornhusk/cornhusk.html</a>.</p>
538<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul99">[Dickerson 1997] Dickerson, George. <q>Beyond Turkey:
539        Corn Shaped History, Cuisines</q>. [online]. Ed. D’Lyn Ford. New Mexico State University
540      College of Agriculture &amp; Home Economics, 11 Nov 1997 [cited 14 Apr
541        1998].<a href="http://elroy.nmsu.edu/CAHE/press/corn_history1997.html" class="link" target="_new">http://elroy.nmsu.edu/CAHE/press/corn_history1997.html</a>.</p>
542<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul100">[Borio 1954] Borio, Gene.<span class="ital">Smoking in
543        England — Elizabethan,</span> excerpted from Alfred H. Dunhill’s <q>The Gentle Art
544        of Smoking</q>. [online]. Library of Congress catalog card #54-10495 (1954). The Tobacco
545      BBS [cited 20 May
546      1998].<a href="http://www.tobacco.org/History/Elizabethan_smoking.html" class="link" target="_new">http://www.tobacco.org/History/Elizabethan_smoking.html</a>.</p>
547<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul101">[Sellement] <q>First English Settlement in the New
548        World</q>. [online]. [cited 13 Apr
549        1998].<a href="http://hal.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/ncsites/English1.htm#First" class="link" target="_new">http://hal.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/ncsites/English1.htm#First</a>.</p>
550<p class="bibliomixed" id="mul-102">[ICW-Net 1998] <span class="ital">Virginia
551        Dare,</span> in <q>Tales from the Coast!</q> [online]. ICW-NET © 1998 [cited 13
552      Apr 1998].<a href="http://www.outerbanks-nc.com/manteo/history/vadare.htm" class="link" target="_new">http://www.outerbanks-nc.com/manteo/history/vadare.htm</a>.</p>
553</div>
554<div class="footnotes">
555<br><hr width="100" align="left">
556<div id="mul74" class="footnote"><p><sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul74-ref" class="footnoteref">[1]</a></sup> It has been argued that the first expedition was not a failure. Richard Grenville did
557          return to the colony with additional provisions not long after Drake’s departure, and he
558          ordered 15 men, supposedly supplied for two years, to remain in the colony while he
559          returned for new settlers. However, it is unknown whether these men were present to greet
560          the subsequent expedition.</p></div>
561<div id="mul90" class="footnote"><p><sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul90-ref" class="footnoteref">[2]</a></sup> In the 16th century, such insects were prized in the making of a vibrant red
562              dye.</p></div>
563<div id="mul5" class="footnote"><p><sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul5-ref" class="footnoteref">[3]</a></sup> This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
564          Colony in 1585. (<span class="ital">See</span>
565          Durant, David N., <q>Raleigh’s Lost Colony</q>, Appendix I, Atheneum,
566            NY: 1981.)</p></div>
567<div id="mul4" class="footnote"><p><sup class="fn-label"><a href="#mul4-ref" class="footnoteref">[4]</a></sup> This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
568          Colony in 1587, as well as the names of children born at the colony. (<span class="ital">See</span>
569          Durant, David N., <q>Raleigh’s Lost Colony</q>, Appendix I, Atheneum,
570            NY: 1981.)</p></div>
571</div>
572</div>
573<div id="balisage-footer"><h3 style="font-family: serif; margin:0.25em">
574<i>Balisage:</i> <small>The Markup Conference</small>
575</h3></div>
576</body>
577</html>
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