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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="balisage-proceedings-html.xsl"?>
3<!--<!DOCTYPE article SYSTEM "../../DTD/balisage-1-2.dtd">-->
4<?xml-stylesheet type="text/css" href="balisage-author.css" title="Authoring" alternate="no"?>
5<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="5.0-subset Balisage-1.2"
6  xml:id="HR-23632987-8973">
7  <title>Raleigh's Discoveries in the New World</title>
8  <subtitle>The lure of vegetable culture</subtitle>
9  <info>
10    <abstract>
11      <para>In 1584, Queen Elizabeth I charged Sir Walter Raleigh to discover and colonize lands in
12        the New World on behalf of England. This article discusses the efforts and expeditions
13        organized under Raleigh's patronage to found a colony in the current-day North Carolina.
14        Going beyond the chronological history of the doomed Roanoke colony, the author provides
15        insights into relations between the colonists and their native counterparts, discusses the
16        botanical riches of the region, and argues that Raleigh's efforts did not end in failure, as
17        commonly might be thought.</para>
18    </abstract>
19    <author>
20      <personname>
21        <firstname>Tonia</firstname>
22        <othername>Renae</othername>
23        <surname>Gaillard</surname>
24      </personname>
25      <personblurb>
26        <para>A native of Eleajora, Dr. Gaillard completed her post-graduate studies in Colonial
27          American History in 2033. Following these studies, she became an Associate Professor at
28          DeBare State University before joining Quetrane University’s faculty. She has chaired the
29          university’s Department of History since 2048.</para>
30        <para>Dr. Gaillard’s extensive writings include <quote>The Politics Underlying the Salem
31            Witch Trials</quote>, <quote>Williamsburg’s Role in the Revolution</quote>,<emphasis
32            role="ital">Benjamin Franklin: Scientist, Inventor, and Politician</emphasis>, and
33            <emphasis role="ital">Native American Culture and the "True Faith."</emphasis> She is
34          currently working on a biography of Simon Kenton, whose role in pioneering Kentucky has
35          been overshadowed by fellow backwoodsman Daniel Boone.</para>
36      </personblurb>
37      <affiliation>
38        <jobtitle>Department Chair</jobtitle>
39        <orgname>Quetrane University</orgname>
40      </affiliation>
41      <email>tgaillard@quetrane.hist.edu</email>
42    </author>
43    <keywordset role="author">
44      <keyword>New World discoveries</keyword>
45      <keyword>American colonial history</keyword>
46      <keyword>English 16th century history</keyword>
47    </keywordset>
48  </info>
49  <section>
50    <title>Introduction</title>
51    <para>On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I of England charged Sir Walter Raleigh to<blockquote>
52        <para>discover, search, find out, and view such remote, heathen and barbarous lands,
53          countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited
54          by Christian People</para>
55      <attribution><xref linkend="thorpe97"/></attribution>
56      </blockquote> That same year Raleigh sent two captains, Philip Amades and Arthur Barlowe, from
57      England to Hispaniola and the Canary Islands; from there, the captains were instructed to
58      scout the lands northeast of those already claimed by Spain, to wit, Florida. This land — now
59      encompassing the Carolinas and Virginia — was claimed on behalf of England and named
60        <quote>Virginia,</quote> in honor of the <quote>Virgin Queen.</quote></para>
61    <para>Information processing, especially text markup, was primitive in the colony. For example,
62      most text stores were in XML! Documents may have looked like this:
63      <programlisting>&lt;teiHeader&gt;
64  &lt;fileDesc&gt;
65    &lt;titleStmt&gt;
66      &lt;title&gt;Farming in the New World&lt;/title&gt;
67      ...
68    &lt;/titleStmt&gt;
69  &lt;/fileDesc&gt;
70&lt;/teiHeader&gt;</programlisting>
71      Notice the paired Tags: <code>&lt;title&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;/title&gt;</code> and the
72      primitive use of indenting. Unusual features of the colonists data processing practices included:<variablelist>
73        <varlistentry>
74          <term>Tags</term>
75          <listitem>
76            <para>Meaningful descriptions of the information enclosed by the markers</para>
77          </listitem>
78        </varlistentry>
79        <varlistentry>
80          <term>Balance</term>
81          <listitem>
82            <para>All markup is both opened and closed (or explicitly empty)</para>
83          </listitem>
84        </varlistentry>
85      </variablelist>
86    </para>
87  </section>
88  <section>
89    <title>Securing a Permanent Colony in the Claimed Lands</title>
90    <para>With land claimed in the New World, an expedition was mounted to establish a settlement.
91      The first expedition failed. Led by Sir Richard Grenville in April 1585, it encompassed 600
92      men of which 105 remained in the colony while Grenville returned to England for additional
93      provisions. (<emphasis role="ital">See</emphasis>
94      <xref linkend="mul83"/>.) However, when almost a year passed without Grenville’s return, the
95      remainder of the expeditionary force took advantage of Sir Francis Drake’s arrival to seek
96      return passage to England. <footnote xml:id="mul74">
97        <para>It has been argued that the first expedition was not a failure. Richard Grenville did
98          return to the colony with additional provisions not long after Drake’s departure, and he
99          ordered 15 men, supposedly supplied for two years, to remain in the colony while he
100          returned for new settlers. However, it is unknown whether these men were present to greet
101          the subsequent expedition.</para>
102      </footnote>
103    </para>
104    <para>The second expedition, organized by John White in 1587, fared better. It sailed with seven
105      ships filled with Devon families intent upon establishing a colony in that part of Virginia
106      called Roanoke, a word deriving from the speech of native peoples. [<xref linkend="mul88"/>]
107      Two years after founding the <quote>Cittie of Raleigh,</quote> houses had been built for
108      almost all families residing in the colony, and the colony had celebrated the birth of its
109      first children born in the New World. The first child, grandchild of John White and child of
110      Ananias and Eleanor Dare, was been named Virginia in honor of the sovereign.</para>
111    <section>
112      <title>Native Plants and Wildlife</title>
113      <para>The European settlers found the New World abundant with commodities <quote>known to
114          yield victual and sustenance of man’s life</quote>. The first expeditionary force noted
115        that a great variety of berries grew wildly, including raspberries, blueberries, and
116        strawberries. Along with maize, native grain, which could be made into bread, grew in the
117        area. Two other plants — more properly called roots — which could be saved for winter
118        consumption were <quote>cassida</quote> and <quote>chyna.</quote> The settlers discovered
119        that while some roots could be eaten much in appearance as they were dug, others had to be
120        boiled before use as a foodstuff. As more fully described below, other plants included
121        beans, and several crops previously unknown to the Europeans: <itemizedlist>
122          <listitem>
123            <para><quote>macocqwer</quote> (gourds),</para>
124          </listitem>
125          <listitem>
126            <para><quote>melden</quote> (an herb),</para>
127          </listitem>
128          <listitem>
129            <para><quote>planta solis</quote> (sunflower — used in a type of bread, as well as for
130              broth),</para>
131          </listitem>
132          <listitem>
133            <para>peas (powdered in a mortar), and</para>
134          </listitem>
135          <listitem>
136            <para>potatoes.</para>
137          </listitem>
138        </itemizedlist>
139      </para>
140      <section>
141        <title>Gourds</title>
142        <para>The native people grew a variety of large broad-leafed, ground-covering vines which
143          produced what they called <quote>macocqwer</quote> or gourds. (<emphasis role="ital"
144            >See</emphasis>
145          <xref linkend="gourds"/>.) Varying in color among shades of green, yellow, and orange,
146          these gourds served a number of functions, not chief of which was as a food source. There
147          were two distinct types, soft-shelled and hard-shelled. Of particular interest to the
148          settlers were pumpkins; grown throughout the summer, this gourd remained in the fields
149          until late autumn’s frost. Following harvest, the gourd could be stored throughout the
150          winter and its flesh made into stews.</para>
151        <figure xml:id="gourds">
152          <title>Gourds</title>
153          <mediaobject>
154            <imageobject>
155              <imagedata format="jpg" fileref="19450212-2.jpg" width="50%"/>
156            </imageobject>
157          </mediaobject>
158          <caption>
159            <para>While gourds, pumpkins and squashes were new to the English, they were soon
160              discovered to be very useful for warding off starvation.</para>
161          </caption>
162        </figure>
163        <para>However, far more important was the hard-skinned gourd. The value of this gourd lay
164          not in its potential as a food source, but rather as a container and serving vessel. Once
165          dried, these gourds were cut and hollowed for use as storage containers, as well as for
166          bowls, ladles, cups, and other types of serving utensils. Indeed, since gourds grew in a
167          variety of shapes and sizes, particular gourds could be selected for their resemblance to
168          the items sought. For the adventurous, the durable objects could be carved and decorated
169          with plant dyes.</para>
170      </section>
171      <section>
172        <title>Tomatoes</title>
173        <para>Also new to the colonists was the tomato. (<emphasis role="ital">See</emphasis>
174          <xref linkend="Tomatoes"/>.) Tomatoes were described as thin-skinned succulent fruits with
175          pulpy interiors. Almost <quote>Bristol red</quote> in color, the fruit was somewhat round
176          in form and the size of a chicken’s egg — not anything approaching the size of modern,
177          cultivated varieties. Of particular importance was the plant’s fecundity. The flowering,
178          bush-like plant bore fruit over a period of months. Thus, a plant could produce as many as
179          15 tomatoes at a given time.</para>
180        <figure xml:id="Tomatoes">
181          <title>Tomatoes</title>
182          <mediaobject>
183            <imageobject>
184              <imagedata format="jpg" fileref="19450212-1.jpg" width="50%"/>
185            </imageobject>
186          </mediaobject>
187          <caption>
188            <para>Tomatoes were among the new fruits discovered in the New World.</para>
189          </caption>
190        </figure>
191      </section>
192      <section>
193        <title>Potatoes</title>
194        <para>Another root that proved beneficial was the potato. Similarly, to the
195            <quote>cassida</quote> mentioned earlier, potatoes were considered roots rather than
196          plants, as the edible portion of the plant lay underground. Given the curious nature of
197          this legume, several examples were brought back from the New World. In fact, Raleigh
198          attempted to cultivate the potato at his estate, Youghall, in Ireland.</para>
199      </section>
200      <section>
201        <title>Fruits and Nuts</title>
202        <para>The colony abounded with a wealth of fruits and nuts, some not previously known to the
203          Europeans. In addition to mulberries, strawberries, and blueberries already mentioned, one
204          of the more curious fruits found was called <quote>medlar</quote> by the natives. Medlar
205          was a fruit not unlike cherries in size and color, but with a much sweeter taste. An
206          equally unusual fruit was <quote>metaqvesvnnaqvk</quote>; notwithstanding its red fruit,
207          that plant’s more important feature lay in the cochinile insects which fed upon its
208          prickly thick leaves <footnote xml:id="mul90">
209            <para>In the 16th century, such insects were prized in the making of a vibrant red
210              dye.</para>
211          </footnote>.</para>
212        <para>Equally abundant in variety and size were nuts. In addition to chestnuts and walnuts,
213          the natives <quote>harvested</quote> no less than five types of <quote>acorns</quote>.
214          These somewhat small nuts were either dried in a manner similar to that used in England
215          for malt, or were boiled for broth.</para>
216        <table>
217          <caption>
218            <para>North American Native Plants</para>
219          </caption>
220          <col align="right" valign="top"/>
221          <col valign="top"/>
222          <col align="center" valign="top"/>
223          <thead>
224            <tr valign="top">
225              <th>Use</th>
226              <th>Plant Part</th>
227              <th>Examples</th>
228            </tr>
229          </thead>
230          <tbody>
231            <tr valign="top">
232              <td rowspan="8"><emphasis role="bold">Vegetables</emphasis></td>
233            </tr>
234            <tr valign="top">
235              <td rowspan="2">Seeds</td>
236              <td>Corn</td>
237            </tr>
238            <tr valign="top">
239              <td>Beans</td>
240            </tr>
241            <tr valign="top">
242              <td rowspan="3">Fruits</td>
243              <td>Squash</td>
244            </tr>
245            <tr valign="top">
246              <td>Peppers</td>
247            </tr>
248            <tr valign="top">
249              <td>Tomatoes</td>
250            </tr>
251            <tr valign="top">
252              <td rowspan="2">Roots</td>
253              <td>Potatoes</td>
254            </tr>
255            <tr valign="top">
256              <td>Sweet Potatoes</td>
257            </tr>
258            <tr valign="top">
259              <td rowspan="4"><emphasis role="bold">Teas</emphasis></td>
260            </tr>
261            <tr valign="top">
262              <td rowspan="2">Leaves</td>
263              <td>Mountain Mint (Namewuskons)</td>
264            </tr>
265            <tr valign="top">
266              <td>Dawn Mint (Wabinowusk)</td>
267            </tr>
268            <tr valign="top">
269              <td>Berries</td>
270              <td>Wintergreen</td>
271            </tr>
272          </tbody>
273        </table>
274      </section>
275    </section>
276  </section>
277  <appendix xml:id="mul83">
278    <title>The First Expeditionary Force’s Colony, 1585-1586 <footnote xml:id="mul5">
279        <para>This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
280          Colony in 1585. (<emphasis role="ital">See</emphasis>
281          <citation>Durant, David N., <quote>Raleigh’s Lost Colony</quote>, Appendix I, Atheneum,
282            NY: 1981.</citation>)</para>
283      </footnote>
284    </title>
285    <itemizedlist>
286      <listitem>
287        <para>Master Philip Amades, Admirall of the countrie</para>
288      </listitem>
289      <listitem>
290        <para>Master Hariot</para>
291      </listitem>
292      <listitem>
293        <para>Master Acton</para>
294      </listitem>
295      <listitem>
296        <para>Master Edward Stafford</para>
297      </listitem>
298      <listitem>
299        <para>Thomas Luddington</para>
300      </listitem>
301      <listitem>
302        <para>Master Marvyn</para>
303      </listitem>
304      <listitem>
305        <para>Master Gardyner</para>
306      </listitem>
307      <listitem>
308        <para>Captaine Vaughan</para>
309      </listitem>
310      <listitem>
311        <para>Master Kendall</para>
312      </listitem>
313      <listitem>
314        <para>Master Prideox</para>
315      </listitem>
316      <listitem>
317        <para>Robert Holecroft</para>
318      </listitem>
319      <listitem>
320        <para>Rise Courtney</para>
321      </listitem>
322      <listitem>
323        <para>Master Hugh Rogers</para>
324      </listitem>
325      <listitem>
326        <para>Thomas Foxe</para>
327      </listitem>
328      <listitem>
329        <para>Edward Nugent</para>
330      </listitem>
331      <listitem>
332        <para>Darby Glande</para>
333      </listitem>
334      <listitem>
335        <para>Edward Kelle</para>
336      </listitem>
337      <listitem>
338        <para>John Gostigo</para>
339      </listitem>
340      <listitem>
341        <para>Erasmus Clefs</para>
342      </listitem>
343      <listitem>
344        <para>Edward Ketcheman</para>
345      </listitem>
346      <listitem>
347        <para>John Linsey</para>
348      </listitem>
349      <listitem>
350        <para>Thomas Rottenbury</para>
351      </listitem>
352      <listitem>
353        <para>Roger Deane</para>
354      </listitem>
355      <listitem>
356        <para>John Harris</para>
357      </listitem>
358      <listitem>
359        <para>Frauncis Norris</para>
360      </listitem>
361      <listitem>
362        <para>Matthewe Lyne</para>
363      </listitem>
364      <listitem>
365        <para>Edward Kettell</para>
366      </listitem>
367      <listitem>
368        <para>Thomas Wisse</para>
369      </listitem>
370      <listitem>
371        <para>Master Thomas Harvie</para>
372      </listitem>
373      <listitem>
374        <para>Master Snelling</para>
375      </listitem>
376      <listitem>
377        <para>Master Anthony Russe</para>
378      </listitem>
379      <listitem>
380        <para>Master Allyne</para>
381      </listitem>
382      <listitem>
383        <para>Master Michel Polyson</para>
384      </listitem>
385      <listitem>
386        <para>John Cage</para>
387      </listitem>
388      <listitem>
389        <para>Thomas Parre</para>
390      </listitem>
391      <listitem>
392        <para>William Randes</para>
393      </listitem>
394      <listitem>
395        <para>Geffrey Churchman</para>
396      </listitem>
397      <listitem>
398        <para>William Farthowe</para>
399      </listitem>
400      <listitem>
401        <para>John Taylor</para>
402      </listitem>
403      <listitem>
404        <para>Philppe Robyns</para>
405      </listitem>
406      <listitem>
407        <para>Thomas Phillipes</para>
408      </listitem>
409      <listitem>
410        <para>Valentine Beale</para>
411      </listitem>
412      <listitem>
413        <para>James Skinner</para>
414      </listitem>
415      <listitem>
416        <para>George Eseven</para>
417      </listitem>
418      <listitem>
419        <para>John Chaundeler</para>
420      </listitem>
421      <listitem>
422        <para>Philip Blunt</para>
423      </listitem>
424      <listitem>
425        <para>Richard Poore</para>
426      </listitem>
427      <listitem>
428        <para>Robert Yong</para>
429      </listitem>
430      <listitem>
431        <para>Marmaduke Constable</para>
432      </listitem>
433      <listitem>
434        <para>Thomas Hesket</para>
435      </listitem>
436      <listitem>
437        <para>William Wasse</para>
438      </listitem>
439      <listitem>
440        <para>John Fever</para>
441      </listitem>
442      <listitem>
443        <para>Daniel</para>
444      </listitem>
445      <listitem>
446        <para>Thomas Taylor</para>
447      </listitem>
448      <listitem>
449        <para>Richard Humfrey</para>
450      </listitem>
451      <listitem>
452        <para>John Wright</para>
453      </listitem>
454      <listitem>
455        <para>Gabriell North</para>
456      </listitem>
457      <listitem>
458        <para>Robert Biscombe</para>
459      </listitem>
460      <listitem>
461        <para>William Backhouse</para>
462      </listitem>
463      <listitem>
464        <para>William White</para>
465      </listitem>
466      <listitem>
467        <para>Henry Potkin</para>
468      </listitem>
469      <listitem>
470        <para>Dennis Barnes</para>
471      </listitem>
472      <listitem>
473        <para>Joseph Borges</para>
474      </listitem>
475      <listitem>
476        <para>Doughan Gannes</para>
477      </listitem>
478      <listitem>
479        <para>William Tenche</para>
480      </listitem>
481      <listitem>
482        <para>Randall Latham</para>
483      </listitem>
484      <listitem>
485        <para>Thomas Hulme</para>
486      </listitem>
487      <listitem>
488        <para>Walter Myll</para>
489      </listitem>
490      <listitem>
491        <para>Richard Gilbert</para>
492      </listitem>
493      <listitem>
494        <para>Steven Pomarie</para>
495      </listitem>
496      <listitem>
497        <para>John Brocke</para>
498      </listitem>
499      <listitem>
500        <para>Bennet Harrye</para>
501      </listitem>
502      <listitem>
503        <para>James Stevenson</para>
504      </listitem>
505      <listitem>
506        <para>Charles Stevenson</para>
507      </listitem>
508      <listitem>
509        <para>Christopher Lowde</para>
510      </listitem>
511      <listitem>
512        <para>Jeremie Man</para>
513      </listitem>
514      <listitem>
515        <para>James Mason</para>
516      </listitem>
517      <listitem>
518        <para>David Salter</para>
519      </listitem>
520      <listitem>
521        <para>Richard Ireland</para>
522      </listitem>
523      <listitem>
524        <para>Thomas Bookener</para>
525      </listitem>
526      <listitem>
527        <para>William Philippes</para>
528      </listitem>
529      <listitem>
530        <para>Randall Mayne</para>
531      </listitem>
532      <listitem>
533        <para>Bennet Chappell</para>
534      </listitem>
535      <listitem>
536        <para>Richard Sare</para>
537      </listitem>
538      <listitem>
539        <para>James Lasie</para>
540      </listitem>
541      <listitem>
542        <para>Smolkin</para>
543      </listitem>
544      <listitem>
545        <para>Thomas Smart</para>
546      </listitem>
547      <listitem>
548        <para>Robert</para>
549      </listitem>
550      <listitem>
551        <para>John Evans</para>
552      </listitem>
553      <listitem>
554        <para>Roger Large</para>
555      </listitem>
556      <listitem>
557        <para>Humfrey Garden</para>
558      </listitem>
559      <listitem>
560        <para>Frauncis Whitton</para>
561      </listitem>
562      <listitem>
563        <para>Rowland Griffyn</para>
564      </listitem>
565      <listitem>
566        <para>William Millard</para>
567      </listitem>
568      <listitem>
569        <para>John Twyt</para>
570      </listitem>
571      <listitem>
572        <para>Edwarde Seklemore</para>
573      </listitem>
574      <listitem>
575        <para>John Anwike</para>
576      </listitem>
577      <listitem>
578        <para>Christopher Marshall</para>
579      </listitem>
580      <listitem>
581        <para>David Williams</para>
582      </listitem>
583      <listitem>
584        <para>Nicholas Swabber</para>
585      </listitem>
586      <listitem>
587        <para>Edward Chipping</para>
588      </listitem>
589      <listitem>
590        <para>Sylvester Beching</para>
591      </listitem>
592      <listitem>
593        <para>Vincent Cheyne</para>
594      </listitem>
595      <listitem>
596        <para>Haunce Walters</para>
597      </listitem>
598      <listitem>
599        <para>Edward Barecombe</para>
600      </listitem>
601      <listitem>
602        <para>Thomas Skevelabs</para>
603      </listitem>
604      <listitem>
605        <para>William Walters</para>
606      </listitem>
607    </itemizedlist>
608  </appendix>
609  <appendix xml:id="mul88">
610    <title>The Roanoke Colony, 1587 <footnote xml:id="mul4">
611        <para>This Appendix contains an actual list of the individuals who sailed to the Roanoke
612          Colony in 1587, as well as the names of children born at the colony. (<emphasis
613            role="ital">See</emphasis>
614          <citation>Durant, David N., <quote>Raleigh’s Lost Colony</quote>, Appendix I, Atheneum,
615            NY: 1981.</citation>)</para>
616      </footnote>
617    </title>
618    <itemizedlist>
619      <listitem>
620        <para>Men</para>
621        <itemizedlist>
622          <listitem>
623            <para>John White [Governor]</para>
624          </listitem>
625          <listitem>
626            <para>Roger Bailie [Assistant]</para>
627          </listitem>
628          <listitem>
629            <para>Ananias Dare [Assistant]</para>
630          </listitem>
631          <listitem>
632            <para>Christopher Cooper [Assistant]</para>
633          </listitem>
634          <listitem>
635            <para>Thomas Stevens [Assistant]</para>
636          </listitem>
637          <listitem>
638            <para>John Sampson [Assistant]</para>
639          </listitem>
640          <listitem>
641            <para>Dyonis Harvie [Assistant]</para>
642          </listitem>
643          <listitem>
644            <para>Roger Prat [Assistant]</para>
645          </listitem>
646          <listitem>
647            <para>George Howe [Assistant]</para>
648          </listitem>
649          <listitem>
650            <para>Simon Fernando [Assistant]</para>
651          </listitem>
652          <listitem>
653            <para>William Willes</para>
654          </listitem>
655          <listitem>
656            <para>John Brooke</para>
657          </listitem>
658          <listitem>
659            <para>Cutbert White</para>
660          </listitem>
661          <listitem>
662            <para>John Bright</para>
663          </listitem>
664          <listitem>
665            <para>Clement Tayler</para>
666          </listitem>
667          <listitem>
668            <para>William Sole</para>
669          </listitem>
670          <listitem>
671            <para>John Cotsmur</para>
672          </listitem>
673          <listitem>
674            <para>Humfrey Newton</para>
675          </listitem>
676          <listitem>
677            <para>Thomas Colman</para>
678          </listitem>
679          <listitem>
680            <para>Thomas Gramme</para>
681          </listitem>
682          <listitem>
683            <para>Nicholas Johnson</para>
684          </listitem>
685          <listitem>
686            <para>Thomas Warner</para>
687          </listitem>
688          <listitem>
689            <para>Anthony Cage</para>
690          </listitem>
691          <listitem>
692            <para>John Jones</para>
693          </listitem>
694          <listitem>
695            <para>John Tydway</para>
696          </listitem>
697          <listitem>
698            <para>Ambrose Viccars</para>
699          </listitem>
700          <listitem>
701            <para>Edmond English</para>
702          </listitem>
703          <listitem>
704            <para>Thomas Topan</para>
705          </listitem>
706          <listitem>
707            <para>Henry Berrye</para>
708          </listitem>
709          <listitem>
710            <para>Richard Berrye</para>
711          </listitem>
712          <listitem>
713            <para>John Spendlove</para>
714          </listitem>
715          <listitem>
716            <para>John Hemmington</para>
717          </listitem>
718          <listitem>
719            <para>Thomas Butler</para>
720          </listitem>
721          <listitem>
722            <para>Edward Powell</para>
723          </listitem>
724          <listitem>
725            <para>John Burden</para>
726          </listitem>
727          <listitem>
728            <para>James Hynde</para>
729          </listitem>
730          <listitem>
731            <para>Thomas Ellis</para>
732          </listitem>
733          <listitem>
734            <para>William Browne</para>
735          </listitem>
736          <listitem>
737            <para>Michael Myllet</para>
738          </listitem>
739          <listitem>
740            <para>Thomas Smith</para>
741          </listitem>
742          <listitem>
743            <para>Richard Kemme</para>
744          </listitem>
745          <listitem>
746            <para>Thomas Harris</para>
747          </listitem>
748          <listitem>
749            <para>Richard Taverner</para>
750          </listitem>
751          <listitem>
752            <para>John Earnest</para>
753          </listitem>
754          <listitem>
755            <para>Henry Johnson</para>
756          </listitem>
757          <listitem>
758            <para>John Starte</para>
759          </listitem>
760          <listitem>
761            <para>Richard Darige</para>
762          </listitem>
763          <listitem>
764            <para>William Lucas</para>
765          </listitem>
766          <listitem>
767            <para>Arnold Archard</para>
768          </listitem>
769          <listitem>
770            <para>John Wright</para>
771          </listitem>
772          <listitem>
773            <para>William Dutton</para>
774          </listitem>
775          <listitem>
776            <para>Morris Allen</para>
777          </listitem>
778          <listitem>
779            <para>William Waters</para>
780          </listitem>
781          <listitem>
782            <para>Richard Arthur</para>
783          </listitem>
784          <listitem>
785            <para>John Chapman</para>
786          </listitem>
787          <listitem>
788            <para>William Clement</para>
789          </listitem>
790          <listitem>
791            <para>Robert Little</para>
792          </listitem>
793          <listitem>
794            <para>Hugh Tayler</para>
795          </listitem>
796          <listitem>
797            <para>Richard Wildye</para>
798          </listitem>
799          <listitem>
800            <para>Lewes Wotton</para>
801          </listitem>
802          <listitem>
803            <para>Michael Bishop</para>
804          </listitem>
805          <listitem>
806            <para>Henry Browne</para>
807          </listitem>
808          <listitem>
809            <para>Marke Bennet</para>
810          </listitem>
811          <listitem>
812            <para>John Gibbes</para>
813          </listitem>
814          <listitem>
815            <para>John Stilman</para>
816          </listitem>
817          <listitem>
818            <para>Robert Wilkinson</para>
819          </listitem>
820          <listitem>
821            <para>Peter Little</para>
822          </listitem>
823          <listitem>
824            <para>John Wyles</para>
825          </listitem>
826          <listitem>
827            <para>Brian Wyles</para>
828          </listitem>
829          <listitem>
830            <para>George Martyn</para>
831          </listitem>
832          <listitem>
833            <para>Hugh Pattenson</para>
834          </listitem>
835          <listitem>
836            <para>Martyn Sutton</para>
837          </listitem>
838          <listitem>
839            <para>John Farre</para>
840          </listitem>
841          <listitem>
842            <para>John Bridger</para>
843          </listitem>
844          <listitem>
845            <para>Griffen Jones</para>
846          </listitem>
847          <listitem>
848            <para>Richard Shaberdge</para>
849          </listitem>
850          <listitem>
851            <para>James Lasie</para>
852          </listitem>
853          <listitem>
854            <para>John Cheven</para>
855          </listitem>
856          <listitem>
857            <para>Thomas Hewet</para>
858          </listitem>
859          <listitem>
860            <para>William Berde</para>
861          </listitem>
862          <listitem>
863            <para>Henry Rufoote</para>
864          </listitem>
865          <listitem>
866            <para>Richard Tomkins</para>
867          </listitem>
868          <listitem>
869            <para>Henry Dorrell</para>
870          </listitem>
871          <listitem>
872            <para>Charles Florrie</para>
873          </listitem>
874          <listitem>
875            <para>Henry Mylton</para>
876          </listitem>
877          <listitem>
878            <para>Henry Payne</para>
879          </listitem>
880          <listitem>
881            <para>Thomas Harris</para>
882          </listitem>
883          <listitem>
884            <para>William Nicholes</para>
885          </listitem>
886          <listitem>
887            <para>Thomas Phevens</para>
888          </listitem>
889          <listitem>
890            <para>John Borden</para>
891          </listitem>
892          <listitem>
893            <para>Thomas Scot</para>
894          </listitem>
895        </itemizedlist>
896      </listitem>
897      <listitem>
898        <para>Women</para>
899        <itemizedlist>
900          <listitem>
901            <para>Elyoner Dare</para>
902          </listitem>
903          <listitem>
904            <para>Margery Harvie</para>
905          </listitem>
906          <listitem>
907            <para>Agnes Wood</para>
908          </listitem>
909          <listitem>
910            <para>Wenefrid Powell</para>
911          </listitem>
912          <listitem>
913            <para>Joyce Archard</para>
914          </listitem>
915          <listitem>
916            <para>Jane Jones</para>
917          </listitem>
918          <listitem>
919            <para>Elizabeth Glane</para>
920          </listitem>
921          <listitem>
922            <para>Jane Pierce</para>
923          </listitem>
924          <listitem>
925            <para>Audry Tappan</para>
926          </listitem>
927          <listitem>
928            <para>Alis Chapman</para>
929          </listitem>
930          <listitem>
931            <para>Emme Merrimoth</para>
932          </listitem>
933          <listitem>
934            <para>Colman</para>
935          </listitem>
936          <listitem>
937            <para>Margaret Lawrence</para>
938          </listitem>
939          <listitem>
940            <para>Joan Warren</para>
941          </listitem>
942          <listitem>
943            <para>Jane Mannering</para>
944          </listitem>
945          <listitem>
946            <para>Rose Payne</para>
947          </listitem>
948          <listitem>
949            <para>Elizabeth Viccars</para>
950          </listitem>
951        </itemizedlist>
952      </listitem>
953      <listitem>
954        <para>Children</para>
955        <itemizedlist>
956          <listitem>
957            <para>John Sampson</para>
958          </listitem>
959          <listitem>
960            <para>Robert Ellis</para>
961          </listitem>
962          <listitem>
963            <para>Ambrose Viccars</para>
964          </listitem>
965          <listitem>
966            <para>Thomas Archard</para>
967          </listitem>
968          <listitem>
969            <para>Thomas Humfrey</para>
970          </listitem>
971          <listitem>
972            <para>Tomas Smart</para>
973          </listitem>
974          <listitem>
975            <para>George Howe</para>
976          </listitem>
977          <listitem>
978            <para>John Prat</para>
979          </listitem>
980          <listitem>
981            <para>William Wythers</para>
982          </listitem>
983        </itemizedlist>
984      </listitem>
985      <listitem>
986        <para>Children Born at the Colony</para>
987        <itemizedlist>
988          <listitem>
989            <para>Virginia Dare</para>
990          </listitem>
991          <listitem>
992            <para>Harvye</para>
993          </listitem>
994        </itemizedlist>
995      </listitem>
996      <listitem>
997        <para>Native Peoples (who having been in England returned to the colony)</para>
998        <itemizedlist>
999          <listitem>
1000            <para>Manteo</para>
1001          </listitem>
1002          <listitem>
1003            <para>Towaye</para>
1004          </listitem>
1005        </itemizedlist>
1006      </listitem>
1007    </itemizedlist>
1008  </appendix>
1009  <bibliography>
1010    <title>Bibliography</title>
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1012        role="ital">Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh: 1584,</emphasis> in <quote>The Federal and States
1013        Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and
1014        Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America</quote> (compiled under Act
1015      of Congress of June 30, 1906). [online]. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909.
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1038      College of Agriculture &amp; Home Economics, 11 Nov 1997 [cited 14 Apr
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1040    <bibliomixed xml:id="mul100" xreflabel="Borio 1954">Borio, Gene.<emphasis role="ital">Smoking in
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1048    <bibliomixed xml:id="mul-102" xreflabel="ICW-Net 1998"><emphasis role="ital">Virginia
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1051  </bibliography>
1052</article>
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