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1% This is "sig-alternate.tex" V1.9 April 2009
2% This file should be compiled with V2.4 of "sig-alternate.cls" April 2009
3%
4% This example file demonstrates the use of the 'sig-alternate.cls'
5% V2.4 LaTeX2e document class file. It is for those submitting
6% articles to ACM Conference Proceedings WHO DO NOT WISH TO
7% STRICTLY ADHERE TO THE SIGS (PUBS-BOARD-ENDORSED) STYLE.
8% The 'sig-alternate.cls' file will produce a similar-looking,
9% albeit, 'tighter' paper resulting in, invariably, fewer pages.
10%
11% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12% This .tex file (and associated .cls V2.4) produces:
13%       1) The Permission Statement
14%       2) The Conference (location) Info information
15%       3) The Copyright Line with ACM data
16%       4) NO page numbers
17%
18% as against the acm_proc_article-sp.cls file which
19% DOES NOT produce 1) thru' 3) above.
20%
21% Using 'sig-alternate.cls' you have control, however, from within
22% the source .tex file, over both the CopyrightYear
23% (defaulted to 200X) and the ACM Copyright Data
24% (defaulted to X-XXXXX-XX-X/XX/XX).
25% e.g.
27% \crdata{0-12345-67-8/90/12} will cause 0-12345-67-8/90/12 to appear in the copyright line.
28%
29% ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30% This .tex source is an example which *does* use
31% the .bib file (from which the .bbl file % is produced).
32% REMEMBER HOWEVER: After having produced the .bbl file,
33% and prior to final submission, you *NEED* to 'insert'
34% your .bbl file into your source .tex file so as to provide
35% ONE 'self-contained' source file.
36%
37% ================= IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS =======================
38% Questions regarding the SIGS styles, SIGS policies and
39% procedures, Conferences etc. should be sent to
41%
42% Technical questions _only_ to
43% Gerald Murray (murray@hq.acm.org)
44% ===============================================================
45%
46% For tracking purposes - this is V1.9 - April 2009
47
48\documentclass[letterpaper]{sig-alternate}
49
50\begin{document}
51%
52% --- Author Metadata here ---
53\conferenceinfo{WOODSTOCK}{'97 El Paso, Texas USA}
54%\CopyrightYear{2007} % Allows default copyright year (200X) to be over-ridden - IF NEED BE.
55%\crdata{0-12345-67-8/90/01}  % Allows default copyright data (0-89791-88-6/97/05) to be over-ridden - IF NEED BE.
56% --- End of Author Metadata ---
57
58\title{Alternate {\ttlit ACM} SIG Proceedings Paper in LaTeX
59Format\titlenote{(Produces the permission block, and
61SIG-ALTERNATE.CLS. Supported by ACM.}}
62\subtitle{[Extended Abstract]
63\titlenote{A full version of this paper is available as
64\textit{Author's Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using
65\LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX} at
67%
68% You need the command \numberofauthors to handle the 'placement
69% and alignment' of the authors beneath the title.
70%
71% For aesthetic reasons, we recommend 'three authors at a time'
72% i.e. three 'name/affiliation blocks' be placed beneath the title.
73%
74% NOTE: You are NOT restricted in how many 'rows' of
75% "name/affiliations" may appear. We just ask that you restrict
76% the number of 'columns' to three.
77%
78% Because of the available 'opening page real-estate'
79% we ask you to refrain from putting more than six authors
80% (two rows with three columns) beneath the article title.
81% More than six makes the first-page appear very cluttered indeed.
82%
83% Use the \alignauthor commands to handle the names
84% and affiliations for an 'aesthetic maximum' of six authors.
86% the seventh etc. author(s) as the argument for the
88% These 'additional authors' will be output/set for you
89% without further effort on your part as the last section in
90% the body of your article BEFORE References or any Appendices.
91
92\numberofauthors{8} %  in this sample file, there are a *total*
93% of EIGHT authors. SIX appear on the 'first-page' (for formatting
94% reasons) and the remaining two appear in the \additionalauthors section.
95%
96\author{
97% You can go ahead and credit any number of authors here,
98% e.g. one 'row of three' or two rows (consisting of one row of three
99% and a second row of one, two or three).
100%
101% The command \alignauthor (no curly braces needed) should
102% precede each author name, affiliation/snail-mail address and
106%
107% 1st. author
108\alignauthor
109Ben Trovato\titlenote{Dr.~Trovato insisted his name be first.}\\
110       \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\
113       \email{trovato@corporation.com}
114% 2nd. author
115\alignauthor
116G.K.M. Tobin\titlenote{The secretary disavows
117any knowledge of this author's actions.}\\
118       \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\
121       \email{webmaster@marysville-ohio.com}
122% 3rd. author
123\alignauthor Lars Th{\o}rv{\"a}ld\titlenote{This author is the
124one who did all the really hard work.}\\
128       \email{larst@affiliation.org}
129\and  % use '\and' if you need 'another row' of author names
130% 4th. author
131\alignauthor Lawrence P. Leipuner\\
135       \email{lleipuner@researchlabs.org}
136% 5th. author
137\alignauthor Sean Fogarty\\
141       \email{fogartys@amesres.org}
142% 6th. author
143\alignauthor Charles Palmer\\
147       \email{cpalmer@prl.com}
148}
149% There's nothing stopping you putting the seventh, eighth, etc.
150% author on the opening page (as the 'third row') but we ask,
151% for aesthetic reasons that you place these 'additional authors'
152% in the \additional authors block, viz.
154email: {\texttt{jsmith@affiliation.org}}) and Julius P.~Kumquat
155(The Kumquat Consortium, email: {\texttt{jpkumquat@consortium.net}}).}
156\date{30 July 1999}
157% Just remember to make sure that the TOTAL number of authors
158% is the number that will appear on the first page PLUS the
159% number that will appear in the \additionalauthors section.
160
161\maketitle
162\begin{abstract}
163This paper provides a sample of a \LaTeX\ document which conforms,
164somewhat loosely, to the formatting guidelines for
165ACM SIG Proceedings. It is an {\em alternate} style which produces
166a {\em tighter-looking} paper and was designed in response to
167concerns expressed, by authors, over page-budgets.
168It complements the document \textit{Author's (Alternate) Guide to
169Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and Bib\TeX}.
170This source file has been written with the intention of being
171compiled under \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX.
172
173The developers have tried to include every imaginable sort
174of bells and whistles", such as a subtitle, footnotes on
175title, subtitle and authors, as well as in the text, and
176every optional component (e.g. Acknowledgments, Additional
177Authors, Appendices), not to mention examples of
178equations, theorems, tables and figures.
179
180To make best use of this sample document, run it through \LaTeX\
181and BibTeX, and compare this source code with the printed
184look and feel'.
185\end{abstract}
186
188\category{H.4}{Information Systems Applications}{Miscellaneous}
189%A category including the fourth, optional field follows...
190\category{D.2.8}{Software Engineering}{Metrics}[complexity measures, performance measures]
191
192\terms{Delphi theory}
193
194\keywords{ACM proceedings, \LaTeX, text tagging}
195
196\section{Introduction}
197The \textit{proceedings} are the records of a conference.
198ACM seeks to give these conference by-products a uniform,
199high-quality appearance.  To do this, ACM has some rigid
200requirements for the format of the proceedings documents: there
201is a specified format (balanced  double columns), a specified
202set of fonts (Arial or Helvetica and Times Roman) in
203certain specified sizes (for instance, 9 point for body copy),
204a specified live area (18 $\times$ 23.5 cm [7" $\times$ 9.25"]) centered on
205the page, specified size of margins (2.54cm [1"] top and
206bottom and 1.9cm [.75"] left and right; specified column width
207(8.45cm [3.33"]) and gutter size (.083cm [.33"]).
208
209The good news is, with only a handful of manual
210settings\footnote{Two of these, the {\texttt{\char'134 numberofauthors}}
211and {\texttt{\char'134 alignauthor}} commands, you have
212already used; another, {\texttt{\char'134 balancecolumns}}, will
213be used in your very last run of \LaTeX\ to ensure
214balanced column heights on the last page.}, the \LaTeX\ document
215class file handles all of this for you.
216
217The remainder of this document is concerned with showing, in
218the context of an actual'' document, the \LaTeX\ commands
219specifically available for denoting the structure of a
220proceedings paper, rather than with giving rigorous descriptions
221or explanations of such commands.
222
223\section{The {\secit Body} of The Paper}
224Typically, the body of a paper is organized
225into a hierarchical structure, with numbered or unnumbered
226headings for sections, subsections, sub-subsections, and even
227smaller sections.  The command \texttt{{\char'134}section} that
228precedes this paragraph is part of such a
229hierarchy.\footnote{This is the second footnote.  It
230starts a series of three footnotes that add nothing
231informational, but just give an idea of how footnotes work
232and look. It is a wordy one, just so you see
233how a longish one plays out.} \LaTeX\ handles the numbering
234and placement of these headings for you, when you use
235the appropriate heading commands around the titles
236of the headings.  If you want a sub-subsection or
237smaller part to be unnumbered in your output, simply append an
238asterisk to the command name.  Examples of both
239numbered and unnumbered headings will appear throughout the
240balance of this sample document.
241
242Because the entire article is contained in
243the \textbf{document} environment, you can indicate the
244start of a new paragraph with a blank line in your
245input file; that is why this sentence forms a separate paragraph.
246
247\subsection{Type Changes and {\subsecit Special} Characters}
248We have already seen several typeface changes in this sample.  You
249can indicate italicized words or phrases in your text with
250the command \texttt{{\char'134}textit}; emboldening with the
251command \texttt{{\char'134}textbf}
252and typewriter-style (for instance, for computer code) with
253\texttt{{\char'134}texttt}.  But remember, you do not
254have to indicate typestyle changes when such changes are
255part of the \textit{structural} elements of your
256article; for instance, the heading of this subsection will
257be in a sans serif\footnote{A third footnote, here.
258Let's make this a rather short one to
259see how it looks.} typeface, but that is handled by the
260document class file. Take care with the use
261of\footnote{A fourth, and last, footnote.}
262the curly braces in typeface changes; they mark
263the beginning and end of
264the text that is to be in the different typeface.
265
266You can use whatever symbols, accented characters, or
267non-English characters you need anywhere in your document;
268you can find a complete list of what is
269available in the \textit{\LaTeX\
270User's Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}.
271
272\subsection{Math Equations}
273You may want to display math equations in three distinct styles:
274inline, numbered or non-numbered display.  Each of
275the three are discussed in the next sections.
276
277\subsubsection{Inline (In-text) Equations}
278A formula that appears in the running text is called an
279inline or in-text formula.  It is produced by the
280\textbf{math} environment, which can be
281invoked with the usual \texttt{{\char'134}begin. . .{\char'134}end}
282construction or with the short form \texttt{\$. . .\$}. You
283can use any of the symbols and structures,
284from $\alpha$ to $\omega$, available in
285\LaTeX\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}; this section will simply show a
286few examples of in-text equations in context. Notice how
287this equation: \begin{math}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{math},
288set here in in-line math style, looks slightly different when
289set in display style.  (See next section).
290
291\subsubsection{Display Equations}
292A numbered display equation -- one set off by vertical space
293from the text and centered horizontally -- is produced
294by the \textbf{equation} environment. An unnumbered display
295equation is produced by the \textbf{displaymath} environment.
296
297Again, in either environment, you can use any of the symbols
298and structures available in \LaTeX; this section will just
299give a couple of examples of display equations in context.
300First, consider the equation, shown as an inline equation above:
301\begin{equation}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{equation}
302Notice how it is formatted somewhat differently in
303the \textbf{displaymath}
304environment.  Now, we'll enter an unnumbered equation:
305\begin{displaymath}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} x + 1\end{displaymath}
306and follow it with another numbered equation:
307\begin{equation}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}x_i=\int_{0}^{\pi+2} f\end{equation}
308just to demonstrate \LaTeX's able handling of numbering.
309
310\subsection{Citations}
311Citations to articles \cite{bowman:reasoning,
312clark:pct, braams:babel, herlihy:methodology},
313conference proceedings \cite{clark:pct} or
314books \cite{salas:calculus, Lamport:LaTeX} listed
315in the Bibliography section of your
316article will occur throughout the text of your article.
317You should use BibTeX to automatically produce this bibliography;
318you simply need to insert one of several citation commands with
319a key of the item cited in the proper location in
320the \texttt{.tex} file \cite{Lamport:LaTeX}.
321The key is a short reference you invent to uniquely
322identify each work; in this sample document, the key is
323the first author's surname and a
324word from the title.  This identifying key is included
325with each item in the \texttt{.bib} file for your article.
326
327The details of the construction of the \texttt{.bib} file
328are beyond the scope of this sample document, but more
329information can be found in the \textit{Author's Guide},
330and exhaustive details in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's
331Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}.
332
334of the citation command, using \texttt{{\char'134}cite}.
335This is what is stipulated in the SIGS style specifications.
336No other citation format is endorsed or supported.
337
338\subsection{Tables}
339Because tables cannot be split across pages, the best
340placement for them is typically the top of the page
341nearest their initial cite.  To
342ensure this proper floating'' placement of tables, use the
343environment \textbf{table} to enclose the table's contents and
344the table caption.  The contents of the table itself must go
345in the \textbf{tabular} environment, to
346be aligned properly in rows and columns, with the desired
347horizontal and vertical rules.  Again, detailed instructions
348on \textbf{tabular} material
349is found in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}.
350
351Immediately following this sentence is the point at which
352Table 1 is included in the input file; compare the
353placement of the table here with the table in the printed
354dvi output of this document.
355
356\begin{table}
357\centering
358\caption{Frequency of Special Characters}
359\begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline
361\O & 1 in 1,000& For Swedish names\\ \hline
362$\pi$ & 1 in 5& Common in math\\ \hline
363\$& 4 in 5 & Used in business\\ \hline 364$\Psi^2_1& 1 in 40,000& Unexplained usage\\ 365\hline\end{tabular} 366\end{table} 367 368To set a wider table, which takes up the whole width of 369the page's live area, use the environment 370\textbf{table*} to enclose the table's contents and 371the table caption. As with a single-column table, this wide 372table will float" to a location deemed more desirable. 373Immediately following this sentence is the point at which 374Table 2 is included in the input file; again, it is 375instructive to compare the placement of the 376table here with the table in the printed dvi 377output of this document. 378 379 380\begin{table*} 381\centering 382\caption{Some Typical Commands} 383\begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline 384Command&A Number&Comments\\ \hline 385\texttt{{\char'134}alignauthor} & 100& Author alignment\\ \hline 386\texttt{{\char'134}numberofauthors}& 200& Author enumeration\\ \hline 387\texttt{{\char'134}table}& 300 & For tables\\ \hline 388\texttt{{\char'134}table*}& 400& For wider tables\\ \hline\end{tabular} 389\end{table*} 390% end the environment with {table*}, NOTE not {table}! 391 392\subsection{Figures} 393Like tables, figures cannot be split across pages; the 394best placement for them 395is typically the top or the bottom of the page nearest 396their initial cite. To ensure this proper floating'' placement 397of figures, use the environment 398\textbf{figure} to enclose the figure and its caption. 399 400This sample document contains examples of \textbf{.eps} 401and \textbf{.ps} files to be displayable with \LaTeX. More 402details on each of these is found in the \textit{Author's Guide}. 403 404\begin{figure} 405\centering 406\epsfig{file=fly.eps} 407\caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format).} 408\end{figure} 409 410\begin{figure} 411\centering 412\epsfig{file=fly.eps, height=1in, width=1in} 413\caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) 414that has been resized with the \texttt{epsfig} command.} 415\end{figure} 416 417 418As was the case with tables, you may want a figure 419that spans two columns. To do this, and still to 420ensure proper `floating'' placement of tables, use the environment 421\textbf{figure*} to enclose the figure and its caption. 422\begin{figure*} 423\centering 424\epsfig{file=flies.eps} 425\caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) 426that needs to span two columns of text.} 427\end{figure*} 428and don't forget to end the environment with 429{figure*}, not {figure}! 430 431Note that either {\textbf{.ps}} or {\textbf{.eps}} formats are 432used; use 433the \texttt{{\char'134}epsfig} or \texttt{{\char'134}psfig} 434commands as appropriate for the different file types. 435 436\begin{figure} 437\centering 438\psfig{file=rosette.ps, height=1in, width=1in,} 439\caption{A sample black and white graphic (.ps format) that has 440been resized with the \texttt{psfig} command.} 441\vskip -6pt 442\end{figure} 443 444\subsection{Theorem-like Constructs} 445Other common constructs that may occur in your article are 446the forms for logical constructs like theorems, axioms, 447corollaries and proofs. There are 448two forms, one produced by the 449command \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} and the 450other by the command \texttt{{\char'134}newdef}; perhaps 451the clearest and easiest way to distinguish them is 452to compare the two in the output of this sample document: 453 454This uses the \textbf{theorem} environment, created by 455the\linebreak\texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} command: 456\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem} 457\begin{theorem} 458Letf$be continuous on$[a,b]$. If$G$is 459an antiderivative for$f$on$[a,b]$, then 460\begin{displaymath}\int^b_af(t)dt = G(b) - G(a).\end{displaymath} 461\end{theorem} 462 463The other uses the \textbf{definition} environment, created 464by the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command: 465\newdef{definition}{Definition} 466\begin{definition} 467If$z$is irrational, then by$e^z$we mean the 468unique number which has 469logarithm$z$: \begin{displaymath}{\log e^z = z}\end{displaymath} 470\end{definition} 471 472Two lists of constructs that use one of these 473forms is given in the 474\textit{Author's Guidelines}. 475 476There is one other similar construct environment, which is 477already set up 478for you; i.e. you must \textit{not} use 479a \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to 480create it: the \textbf{proof} environment. Here 481is a example of its use: 482\begin{proof} 483Suppose on the contrary there exists a real number$L$such that 484\begin{displaymath} 485\lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = L. 486\end{displaymath} 487Then 488\begin{displaymath} 489l=\lim_{x\rightarrow c} f(x) 490= \lim_{x\rightarrow c} 491\left[ g{x} \cdot \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} \right ] 492= \lim_{x\rightarrow c} g(x) \cdot \lim_{x\rightarrow c} 493\frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = 0\cdot L = 0, 494\end{displaymath} 495which contradicts our assumption that$l\neq 0\$.
496\end{proof}
497
498Complete rules about using these environments and using the
499two different creation commands are in the
500\textit{Author's Guide}; please consult it for more
501detailed instructions.  If you need to use another construct,
502not listed therein, which you want to have the same
503formatting as the Theorem
504or the Definition\cite{salas:calculus} shown above,
505use the \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} or the
506\texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command,
507respectively, to create it.
508
509\subsection*{A {\secit Caveat} for the \TeX\ Expert}
510Because you have just been given permission to
511use the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to create a
512new form, you might think you can
513use \TeX's \texttt{{\char'134}def} to create a
514new command: \textit{Please refrain from doing this!}
515Remember that your \LaTeX\ source code is primarily intended
516to create camera-ready copy, but may be converted
517to other forms -- e.g. HTML. If you inadvertently omit
518some or all of the \texttt{{\char'134}def}s recompilation will
519be, to say the least, problematic.
520
521\section{Conclusions}
522This paragraph will end the body of this sample document.
523Remember that you might still have Acknowledgments or
524Appendices; brief samples of these
525follow.  There is still the Bibliography to deal with; and
526we will make a disclaimer about that here: with the exception
527of the reference to the \LaTeX\ book, the citations in
528this paper are to articles which have nothing to
529do with the present subject and are used as
530examples only.
531%\end{document}  % This is where a 'short' article might terminate
532
533%ACKNOWLEDGMENTS are optional
534\section{Acknowledgments}
535This section is optional; it is a location for you
536to acknowledge grants, funding, editing assistance and
537what have you.  In the present case, for example, the
538authors would like to thank Gerald Murray of ACM for
539his help in codifying this \textit{Author's Guide}
540and the \textbf{.cls} and \textbf{.tex} files that it describes.
541
542%
543% The following two commands are all you need in the
544% initial runs of your .tex file to
545% produce the bibliography for the citations in your paper.
546\bibliographystyle{abbrv}
547\bibliography{sigproc}  % sigproc.bib is the name of the Bibliography in this case
548% You must have a proper ".bib" file
549%  and remember to run:
550% latex bibtex latex latex
551% to resolve all references
552%
553% ACM needs 'a single self-contained file'!
554%
555%APPENDICES are optional
556%\balancecolumns
557\appendix
558%Appendix A
561the body of the article are different in the appendices.
562In the \textbf{appendix} environment, the command
563\textbf{section} is used to
564indicate the start of each Appendix, with alphabetic order
565designation (i.e. the first is A, the second B, etc.) and
566a title (if you include one).  So, if you need
567hierarchical structure
569highest level. Here is an outline of the body of this
570document in Appendix-appropriate form:
571\subsection{Introduction}
572\subsection{The Body of the Paper}
573\subsubsection{Type Changes and  Special Characters}
574\subsubsection{Math Equations}
575\paragraph{Inline (In-text) Equations}
576\paragraph{Display Equations}
577\subsubsection{Citations}
578\subsubsection{Tables}
579\subsubsection{Figures}
580\subsubsection{Theorem-like Constructs}
581\subsubsection*{A Caveat for the \TeX\ Expert}
582\subsection{Conclusions}
583\subsection{Acknowledgments}
585This section is inserted by \LaTeX; you do not insert it.
586You just add the names and information in the
588of the document.
589\subsection{References}
590Generated by bibtex from your ~.bib file.  Run latex,
591then bibtex, then latex twice (to resolve references)
592to create the ~.bbl file.  Insert that ~.bbl file into
593the .tex source file and comment out
594the command \texttt{{\char'134}thebibliography}.
595% This next section command marks the start of
596% Appendix B, and does not continue the present hierarchy
597\section{More Help for the Hardy}
598The sig-alternate.cls file itself is chock-full of succinct