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34
35The Linux 3Dfx HOWTO
36  Bernd Kreimeier (bk@gamers.org)
37  v1.16, 6 February 1998
38
39  This document describes 3Dfx graphics accelerator chip support for
40  Linux. It lists some supported hardware, describes how to configure
41  the drivers, and answers frequently asked questions.
42  ______________________________________________________________________
43
44  Table of Contents
45
46
47
48  1. Introduction
49
50     1.1 Contributors and Contacts
51     1.2 Acknowledgments
52     1.3 Revision History
53     1.4 New versions of this document
54     1.5 Feedback
55     1.6 Distribution Policy
56
57  2. Graphics Accelerator Technology
58
59     2.1 Basics
60     2.2 Hardware configuration
61     2.3 A bit of Voodoo Graphics (tm) architecture
62
63  3. Installation
64
65     3.1 Installing the board
66        3.1.1 Troubleshooting the hardware installation
67        3.1.2 Configuring the kernel
68        3.1.3 Configuring devices
69     3.2 Setting up the Displays
70        3.2.1 Single screen display solution
71        3.2.2 Single screen dual cable setup
72        3.2.3 Dual screen display solution
73     3.3 Installing the Glide distribution
74        3.3.1 Using the detect program
75        3.3.2 Using the test programs
76
77  4. Answers To Frequently Asked Questions
78
79  5. FAQ: Requirements?
80
81     5.1 What are the system requirements?
82     5.2 Does it work with Linux-Alpha?
83     5.3 Which 3Dfx chipsets are supported?
84     5.4 Is the Voodoo Rush (tm) supported?
85     5.5 Which boards are supported?
86     5.6 How do boards differ?
87     5.7 What about AGP?
88
89  6. FAQ: Voodoo Graphics (tm)? 3Dfx?
90
91     6.1 Who is 3Dfx?
92     6.2 Who is Quantum3D?
93     6.3 What is the Voodoo Graphics (tm)?
94     6.4 What is the Voodoo Rush (tm)?
95     6.5 What is the Voodoo 2 (tm)?
96     6.6 What is VGA pass-though?
97     6.7 What is Texelfx or TMU?
98     6.8 What is a Pixelfx unit?
99     6.9 What is SLI mode?
100     6.10 Is there a single board SLI setup?
101     6.11 How much memory? How many buffers?
102     6.12 Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) do 24 or 32 bit color?
103     6.13 Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) store 24 or 32 bit z-buffer per pixel?
104     6.14 What resolutions does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) support?
105     6.15 What texture sizes are supported?
106     6.16 Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) support paletted textures?
107     6.17 What about overclocking?
108     6.18 Where could I get additional info on Voodoo Graphics (tm)?
109
110  7. FAQ: Glide? TexUS?
111
112     7.1 What is Glide anyway?
113     7.2 What is TexUS?
114     7.3 Is Glide freeware?
115     7.4 Where do I get Glide?
116     7.5 Is the Glide source available?
117     7.6 Is Linux Glide supported?
118     7.7 Where could I post Glide questions?
119     7.8 Where to send bug reports?
120     7.9 Who is maintaining it?
121     7.10 How can I contribute to Linux Glide?
122     7.11 Do I have to use Glide?
123     7.12 Should I program using the Glide API?
124     7.13 What is the Glide current version?
125     7.14 Does it support multiple Texelfx already?
126     7.15 Is Linux Glide identical to DOS/Windows Glide?
127     7.16 Where to I get information on Glide?
128     7.17 Where to get some Glide demos?
129     7.18 What is ATB?
130
131  8. FAQ: Glide and XFree86?
132
133     8.1 Does it run with XFree86?
134     8.2 Does it only run full screen?
135     8.3 What is the problem with AT3D/Voodoo Rush (tm) boards?
136     8.4 What about GLX for XFree86?
137     8.5 Glide and commerical X Servers?
138     8.6 Glide and SVGA?
139     8.7 Glide and GGI?
140
141  9. FAQ: OpenGL/Mesa?
142
143     9.1 What is OpenGL?
144     9.2 Where to get additional information on OpenGL?
145     9.3 Is Glide an OpenGL implementation?
146     9.4 Is there an OpenGL driver from 3Dfx?
147     9.5 Is there a commercial OpenGL for Linux and 3Dfx?
148     9.6 What is Mesa?
149     9.7 Does Mesa work with 3Dfx?
150     9.8 How portable is Mesa with Glide?
151     9.9 Where to get info on Mesa?
152     9.10 Where to get information on Mesa Voodoo?
153     9.11 Does Mesa support multitexturing?
154     9.12 Does Mesa support single pass trilinear mipmapping?
155     9.13 What is the Mesa "Window Hack"?
156     9.14 How about GLUT?
157
158  10. FAQ: But Quake?
159
160     10.1 What about that 3Dfx GL driver for Quake?
161     10.2 Is there a 3Dfx based glQuake for Linux?
162     10.3 Does glQuake run in an XFree86 window?
163     10.4 Known Linux Quake problems?
164     10.5 Know Linux Quake security problems?
165     10.6 Does LinuxQuake use multitexturing?
166     10.7 Where can I get current information on Linux glQuake?
167
168  11. FAQ: Troubleshooting?
169
170     11.1 Has this hardware been tested?
171     11.2 Failed to change I/O privilege?
172     11.3 Does it work without root privilege?
173     11.4 Displayed images looks awful (single screen)?
174     11.5 The last frame is still there (single or dual screen)?
175     11.6 Powersave kicks in (dual screen)?
176     11.7 My machine seem to lock (X11, single screen)?
177     11.8 My machine locks (single or dual screen)?
178     11.9 My machine locks (used with S3 VGA board)?
179     11.10 No address conflict, but locks anyway?
180     11.11 Mesa runs, but does not access the board?
181     11.12 Resetting dual board SLI?
182     11.13 Resetting single board SLI?
183
184
185  ______________________________________________________________________
186
187
188
189  1.  Introduction
190
191  This is the Linux 3Dfx HOWTO document. It is intended as a quick
192  reference covering everything you need to know to install and
193  configure 3Dfx support under Linux. Frequently asked questions
194  regarding the 3Dfx support are answered, and references are given to
195  some other sources of information on a variety of topics related to
196  computer generated, hardware accelerated 3D graphics.
197
198  This information is only valid for Linux on the Intel platform.  Some
199  information may be applicable to other processor architectures, but I
200  have no first hand experience or information on this. It is only
201  applicable to boards based on 3Dfx technology, any other graphics
202  accelerator hardware is beyond the scope of this document.
203
204
205
206  1.1.  Contributors and Contacts
207
208  This document would not have been possible without all the information
209  contributed by other people - those involved in the Linux Glide port
210  and the beta testing process, in the development of Mesa and the Mesa
211  Voodoo drivers, or rewieving the document on behalf of 3Dfx and
212  Quantum3D.  Some of them contributed entire sections to this document.
213
214  Daryll Strauss daryll@harlot.rb.ca.us did the port, Paul J. Metzger
215  pjm@rbd.com modified the Mesa Voodoo driver (written by David
216  Bucciarelli tech.hmw@plus.it) for Linux, Brian Paul brianp@RA.AVID.COM
217  integrated it with his famous Mesa library. With respect to Voodoo
218  Graphics (tm) accelerated Mesa, additional thanks has to go to Henri
219  Fousse, Gary McTaggart, and the maintainer of the 3Dfx Mesa for DOS,
220  Charlie Wallace Charlie.Wallace@unistudios.com.  The folks at 3Dfx,
221  notably Gary Sanders, Rod Hughes, and Marty Franz, provided valuable
222  input, as did Ross Q. Smith of Quantum3D. The pages on the Voodoo
223  Extreme and Operation 3Dfx websites provided useful info as well, and
224  in some case I relied on the 3Dfx local Newsgroups. The Linux glQuake2
225  port that uses Linux Glide and Mesa is maintained by Dave Kirsch
226  zoid@idsoftware.com.  Thanks to all those who sent e-mail regarding
227  corrections and updates, and special thanks to Mark Atkinson for
228  reminding me of the dual cable setup.
229
230  Thanks to the SGML-Tools package (formerly known as Linuxdoc-SGML),
231  this HOWTO is available in several formats, all generated from a
232  common source file. For information on SGML-Tools see its homepage at
233  pobox.com/~cg/sgmltools.
234
235
236
237  1.2.  Acknowledgments
238
239  3Dfx, the 3Dfx Interactive logo, Voodoo Graphics (tm), and Voodoo Rush
240  (tm) are registered trademarks of 3Dfx Interactive, Inc.  Glide,
241  TexUS, Pixelfx and Texelfx are trademarks of 3Dfx Interactive, Inc.
242  OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics. Obsidian is a
243  trademark of Quantum3D.  Other product names are trademarks of the
244  respective holders, and are hereby considered properly acknowledged.
245
246
247  1.3.  Revision History
248
249
250     Version 1.03
251        First version for public release.
252
253     Version 1.16
254        Current version v1.16 6 February 1998.
255
256
257
258  1.4.  New versions of this document
259
260  You will find the most recent version of this document at
261  www.gamers.org/dEngine/xf3D/.
262
263  New versions of this document will be periodically posted to the
264  comp.os.linux.answers newsgroup. They will also be uploaded to various
265  anonymous ftp sites that archive such information including
266  ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/.
267
268  Hypertext versions of this and other Linux HOWTOs are available on
269  many World-Wide-Web sites, including sunsite.unc.edu/LDP/. Most Linux
270  CD-ROM distributions include the HOWTOs, often under the
271  /usr/doc/directory, and you can also buy printed copies from several
272  vendors.
273
274  If you make a translation of this document into another language, let
275  me know and I'll include a reference to it here.
276
277
278
279  1.5.  Feedback
280
281  I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. If you have any
282  suggestions, corrections, or comments, please send them to me (
283  bk@gamers.org), and I will try to incorporate them in the next
284  revision.  Please add HOWTO 3Dfx to the Subject-line of the mail, so
285  procmail will dump it in the appropriate folder.
286
287  Before sending bug reports or questions, please read all of the
288  information in this HOWTO, and send detailed information about the
289  problem.
290
291  If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a
292  complimentary copy would be appreciated. Mail me for my postal
293  address. Also consider making a donation to the Linux Documentation
294  Project to help support free documentation for Linux. Contact the
295  Linux HOWTO coordinator, Tim Bynum (linux-howto@sunsite.unc.edu), for
296  more information.
297
298
299
300  1.6.  Distribution Policy
301
302  Copyright (c) 1997, 1998 by Bernd Kreimeier.  This document may be
303  distributed under the terms set forth in the LDP license at
304  sunsite.unc.edu/LDP/COPYRIGHT.html.
305
306  This HOWTO is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or
307  modify it under the terms of the LDP license.  This document is
308  distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any
309  warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or
310  fitness for a particular purpose.  See the LDP license for more
311  details.
312
313
314
315  2.  Graphics Accelerator Technology
316
317  2.1.  Basics
318
319  This section gives a very cursory overview of computer graphics
320  accelerator technology, in order to help you understand the concepts
321  used later in the document. You should consult e.g.  a book on OpenGL
322  in order to learn more.
323
324
325  2.2.  Hardware configuration
326
327  Graphics accelerators come in different flavors: either as a separate
328  PCI board that is able to pass through the video signal of a (possibly
329  2D or video accelerated) VGA board, or as a PCI board that does both
330  VGA and 3D graphics (effectively replacing older VGA controllers).
331  The 3Dfx boards based on the Voodoo Graphics (tm) belong to the former
332  category. We will get into this again later.
333
334
335  If there is no address conflict, any 3D accelerator board could be
336  present under Linux without interfering, but in order to access the
337  accelerator, you will need a driver. A combined 2D/3D accelerator
338  might behave differently.
339
340
341  2.3.  A bit of Voodoo Graphics (tm) architecture
342
343  Usually, accessing texture memory and frame/depth buffer is a major
344  bottleneck. For each pixel on the screen, there are at least one
345  (nearest), four (bi-linear), or eight (tri-linear mipmapped) read
346  accesses to texture memory, plus a read/write to the depth buffer, and
347  a read/write to frame buffer memory.
348
349  The Voodoo Graphics (tm) architecture separates texture memory from
350  frame/depth buffer memory by introducing two separate rendering
351  stages, with two corresponding units (Pixelfx and Texelfx), each
352  having a separate memory interface to dedicated memory. This gives an
353  above-average fill rate, paid for restrictions in memory management
354  (e.g. unused framebuffer memory can not be used for texture caching).
355
356  Moreover, a Voodoo Graphics (tm) could use two TMU's (texture
357  management or texelfx units), and finally, two Voodoo Graphics (tm)
358  could be combined with a mechanism called Scan-Line Interleaving
359  (SLI). SLI essentially means that each Pixelfx unit effectively
360  provides only every other scanline, which decreases bandwidth impact
361  on each Pixelfx' framebuffer memory.
362
363
364
365  3.  Installation
366
367  Configuring Linux to support 3Dfx accelerators involves the following
368  steps:
369
370  1. Installing the board.
371
372  2. Installing the Glide distribution.
373
374  3. Compiling, linking and/or running the application.
375
376  The next sections will cover each of these steps in detail.
377
378
379  3.1.  Installing the board
380
381  Follow the manufacturer's instructions for installing the hardware or
382  have your dealer perform the installation.  It should not be necessary
383  to select settings for IRQ, DMA channel, either Plug&Pray (tm) or
384  factory defaults should work. The add-on boards described here are
385  memory mapped devices and do not use IRQ's. The only kind of conflict
386  to avoid is memory overlap with other devices.
387
388  As 3Dfx does not develop or sell any boards, do not contact them on
389  any problems.
390
391
392  3.1.1.  Troubleshooting the hardware installation
393
394  To check the installation and the memory mapping, do cat /proc/pci.
395  The output should contain something like
396
397  ______________________________________________________________________
398    Bus  0, device  12, function  0:
399      VGA compatible controller: S3 Inc. Vision 968 (rev 0).
400        Medium devsel.  IRQ 11.
401        Non-prefetchable 32 bit memory at 0xf4000000.
402
403    Bus  0, device   9, function  0:
404      Multimedia video controller: Unknown vendor Unknown device (rev 2).
405        Vendor id=121a. Device id=1.
406        Fast devsel.  Fast back-to-back capable.
407        Prefetchable 32 bit memory at 0xfb000000.
408  ______________________________________________________________________
409
410
411  for a Diamond Monster 3D used with a Diamond Stealth-64. Additionally
412  a cat /proc/cpuinfo /proc/meminfo might be helpfull for tracking down
413  conflicts and/or submitting a bug report.
414
415  With current kernels, you will probably get a boot warning like
416
417  ______________________________________________________________________
418  Jun 12 12:31:52 hal kernel: Warning : Unknown PCI device (121a:1).
419  Please read include/linux/pci.h
420  ______________________________________________________________________
421
422
423  which could be safely ignored. If you happen to have a board not very
424  common, or have encountered a new revision, you should take the time
425  to follow the advice in /usr/include/linux/pci.h and send all neces-
426  sary information to linux-pcisupport@cao-vlsi.ibp.fr.
427
428  If you experience any problems with the board, you should try to
429  verify that DOS and/or Win95 or NT support works. You will probably
430  not receive any useful response from a board manufacturer on a bug
431  report or request regarding Linux. Having dealt with the Diamond
432  support e-mail system, I would not expect useful responses for other
433  operating systems either.
434
435
436  3.1.2.  Configuring the kernel
437
438  There is no kernel configuration necessary, as long as PCI support is
439  enabled.  The Linux Kernel HOWTO
440  <http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html> should be
441  consulted for the details of building a kernel.
442
443
444
445  3.1.3.  Configuring devices
446
447  The current drivers do not (yet) require any special devices.  This is
448  different from other driver developments (e.g. the sound drivers,
449  where you will find a /dev/dsp and /dev/audio). The driver uses the
450  /dev/mem device which should always be available. In consequence, you
451  need to use setuid or root privileges to access the accelerator board.
452
453
454  3.2.  Setting up the Displays
455
456  There are two possible setups with add-on boards. You could either
457  pass-through the video signal from your regular VGA board via the
458  accelerator board to the display, or you could use two displays at the
459  same time.  Rely to the manual provided by the board manufacturer for
460  details. Both configurations have been tried with the Monster 3D
461  board.
462
463
464  3.2.1.  Single screen display solution
465
466  This configuration allows you to check basic operations of the
467  accelerator board - if the video signal is not transmitted to the
468  display, hardware failure is possible.
469
470  Beware that the video output signal might deteoriate significantly if
471  passed through the video board. To a degree, this is inevitable.
472  However, reviews have complained about below-average of the cables
473  provided e.g. with the Monster 3D, and judging from the one I tested,
474  this has not changed.
475
476  There are other pitfalls in single screen configurations.  Switching
477  from the VGA display mode to the accelerated display mode will change
478  resolution and refresh rate as well, even if you are using 640x480
479  e.g. with X11, too.  Moreover, if you are running X11, your
480  application is responsible for demanding all keyboard and mouse
481  events, or you might get stuck because of changed scope and exposure
482  on the X11 display (that is effectively invisible when the accelerated
483  mode is used) You could use SVGA console mode instead of X11.
484
485  If you are going to use a single screen configuration and switch modes
486  often, remember that your monitor hardware might not enjoy this kind
487  of use.
488
489
490
491  3.2.2.  Single screen dual cable setup
492
493  Some high end monitors (e.g. the EIZO F-784-T) come with two
494  connectors, one with 5 BNC connectors for RGB, HSync, VSync, the other
495  e.g. a regular VGA or a 13W3 Sub-D VGA.  These displays usually also
496  feature a front panel input selector to safely switch from one to the
497  other. It is thus possible to use e.g. a VGA-to-BNC cable with your
498  high end 2D card, and a VGA-to-13W3 Sub-D cable with your 3Dfx, and
499  effectively run dual screen on one display.
500
501
502  3.2.3.  Dual screen display solution
503
504  The accelerator board does not need the VGA input signal.  Instead of
505  routing the common video output through the accelerator board, you
506  could attach a second monitor to its output, and use both at the same
507  time. This solution is more expensive, but gives best results, as your
508  main display will still be hires and without the signal quality losses
509  involved in a pass-through solution. In addition, you could use X11
510  and the accelerated full screen display in parallel, for development
511  and debugging.
512
513  A common problem is that the accelerator board will not provide any
514  video signal when not used. In consequence, each time the graphics
515  application terminates, the hardware screensave/powersave might kick
516  in depending on your monitors configuration. Again, your hardware
517  might not enjoy being treated like this. You should use
518
519  ______________________________________________________________________
520  setenv SST_DUALSCREEN 1
521  ______________________________________________________________________
522
523
524  to force continued video output in this setup.
525
526
527  3.3.  Installing the Glide distribution
528
529  The Glide driver and library are provided as a single compressed
530  archive. Use tar and gzip to unpack, and follow the instructions in
531  the README and INSTALL accompanying the distribution.  Read the
532  install script and run it. Installation puts everything in
533  /usr/local/glide/include,lib,bin and sets the ld.conf to look there.
534  Where it installs and setting ld.conf are independent actions. If you
535  skip the ld.conf step then you need the LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
536
537  You will need to install the header files in a location available at
538  compile time, if you want to compile your own graphics applications.
539  If you do not want to use the installation as above (i.e. you insist
540  on a different location), make sure that any application could access
541  the shared libary at runtime, or you will get a response like can't
542  load library 'libglide.so'.
543
544
545
546  3.3.1.  Using the detect program
547
548  There is a bin/detect program in the distribution (the source is not
549  available). You have to run it as root, and you will get something
550  like
551
552  ______________________________________________________________________
553  slot  vendorId   devId   baseAddr0  command  description
554  ----  --------  ------  ----------  -------  -----------
555    00    0x8086  0x122d  0x00000000   0x0006  Intel:430FX (Triton)
556    07    0x8086  0x122e  0x00000000   0x0007  Intel:ISA bridge
557    09    0x121a  0x0001  0xfb000008   0x0002  3Dfx:video multimedia adapter
558    10    0x1000  0x0001  0x0000e401   0x0007  ???:SCSI bus controller
559    11    0x9004  0x8178  0x0000e001   0x0017  Adaptec:SCSI bus controller
560    12    0x5333  0x88f0  0xf4000000   0x0083  S3:VGA-compatible display co
561  ______________________________________________________________________
562
563
564  as a result. If you do not have root privileges, the program will bail
565  out with
566
567  ______________________________________________________________________
568  Permission denied: Failed to change I/O privilege. Are you root?
569  ______________________________________________________________________
570
571
572  output might come handy for a bug report as well.
573
574
575
576  3.3.2.  Using the test programs
577
578  Within the Glide distribution, you will find a folder with test
579  programs. Note that these test programs are under 3Dfx copyright, and
580  are legally available for use only if you have purchased a board with
581  a 3Dfx chipset. See the LICENSE file in the distribution, or their web
582  site www.3dfx.com for details.
583
584  It is recommend to compile and link the test programs even if there
585  happen to be binaries in the distribution. Note that some of the
586  programs will requires some files like alpha.3df from the distribution
587  to be available in the same folder.  All test programs use the 640x480
588  screen resolution. Some will request a veriety of single character
589  inputs, others will just state Press A Key To Begin Test. Beware of
590  loss of input scope if running X11 on the same screen at the same
591  time.
592
593  See the README.test for a list of programs, and other details.
594
595
596
597  4.  Answers To Frequently Asked Questions
598
599  The following section answers some of the questions that (will) have
600  been asked on the Usenet news groups and mailing lists. The FAQ has
601  been subdivided into several parts for convenience, namely
602
603  o  FAQ: Requirements?
604
605  o  FAQ: Voodoo Graphics (tm)? 3Dfx?
606
607  o  FAQ: Glide?
608
609  o  FAQ: Glide and SVGA?
610
611  o  FAQ: Glide and XFree86?
612
613  o  FAQ: Glide versus OpenGL/Mesa?
614
615  o  FAQ: But Quake?
616
617  o  FAQ: Troubleshooting?
618
619     Each section lists several questions and answers, which will
620     hopefully address most problems.
621
622
623
624  5.  FAQ: Requirements?
625
626
627
628  5.1.  What are the system requirements?
629
630  A Linux PC, PCI 2.1 compliant, a monitor capable of 640x480, and a 3D
631  accelerator board based on the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics (tm). It will work
632  on a P5 or P6, with or without MMX. The current version does not use
633  MMX, but it has some optimized code paths for P6.
634
635  At one point, some 3Dfx statements seemed to imply that using Linux
636  Glide required using a RedHat distribution. Note that while Linux
637  Glide has originally been ported in a RedHat 4.1 environment, it has
638  been used and tested with many other Linux distributions, including
639  homebrew, Slackware, and Debian 1.3.1.
640
641
642  5.2.  Does it work with Linux-Alpha?
643
644  There is currently no Linux Glide distribution available for any
645  platform besides i586. As the Glide sources are not available for
646  distribution, you will have to wait for the binary. Quantum3D has DEC
647  Alpha support announced for 2H97. Please contact Daryll Strauss if you
648  are interested in supporting this.
649
650  There is also the issue of porting the the assembly modules. While
651  there are alternative C paths in the code, the assembly module in
652  Glide (essentially triangle setup) offered significant performance
653  gains depending on the P5 CPU used.
654
655
656
657  5.3.  Which 3Dfx chipsets are supported?
658
659  Currently, the  3Dfx Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipset is supported under
660  Linux. The Voodoo Rush (tm) chipset is not yet supported.
661
662
663  5.4.  Is the Voodoo Rush (tm) supported?
664
665  The current port of Glide to Linux does not support the Voodoo Rush
666  (tm). An update is in the works.
667
668  The problem is that at one point the Voodoo Rush (tm) driver code in
669  Glide depended on Direct Draw. There was an SST96 based DOS portion in
670  the library that could theoretically be used for Linux, as soon as all
671  portions residing in the 2D/Direct Draw/D3D combo driver are replaced.
672
673  Thus Voodoo Rush (tm) based boards like the Hercules Stingray 128/3D
674  or Intergraph Intense Rush are not supported yet.
675
676
677
678  5.5.  Which boards are supported?
679
680  There are no officially supported boards, as 3Dfx does not sell any
681  boards. This section does not attempt to list all boards, it will just
682  give an overview, and will list only boards that have been found to
683  cause trouble.
684
685  It is important to recognize that Linux support for a given board does
686  not only require a driver for the 3D accelerator component. If a board
687  features its own VGA core as well, support by either Linux SVGA or
688  XFree86 is required as well (see section about Voodoo Rush (tm)
689  chipset).  Currently, an add-on solution is recommended, as it allows
690  you to choose a regular graphics board well supported for Linux. There
691  are other aspects discussed below.
692
693
694  All Quantum3D Obsidian boards, independend of texture memory, frame
695  buffer memory, number of Pixelfx and Texelfx units, and SLI should
696  work. Same for all other Voodoo Graphics (tm) based boards, like
697  Orchid Righteous 3D, Canopus Pure 3D, Flash 3D, and Diamond Monster
698  3D.  Voodoo Rush (tm) based boards are not yet supported.
699
700  Boards that are not based on 3Dfx chipsets (e.g. manufactured by S3,
701  Matrox, 3Dlabs, Videologic) do not work with the 3Dfx drivers and are
702  beyond the scope of this document.
703
704
705
706  5.6.  How do boards differ?
707
708  As the board manufacturers are using the same chipset, any differences
709  are due to board design. Examples are quality of the pass-through
710  cable and connectors (reportedly, Orchid provided better quality than
711  Diamond), availability of a TV-compliant video signal output (Canopus
712  Pure 3D), and, most notably, memory size on board.
713
714  Most common were boards for games with 2MB texture cache and 2 MB
715  framebuffer memory, however, the Canopus Pure3D comes with a maximal 4
716  MB texture cache, which is an advantage e.g.  with games using
717  dynamically changed textures, and/or illumation textures (Quake, most
718  notably).  The memory architecture of a typical Voodoo Graphics (tm)
719  board is described below, in a separate section.
720
721  Quantum 3D offers the widest selection of 3Dfx-based boards, and is
722  probably the place to go if you are looking for a high end Voodoo
723  Graphics (tm) based board configuration.  Quantum 3D is addressing the
724  visual simulation market, while most of the other vendors are only
725  targetting the consumer-level PC-game market.
726
727
728
729  5.7.  What about AGP?
730
731  There is no Voodoo Graphics (tm) or Voodoo Rush (tm) AGP board that I
732  am aware of. I am not aware of AGP support under Linux, and I do not
733  know whether upcmong AGP boards using 3Dfx technology might possibly
734  be supported with Linux.
735
736
737
738  6.  FAQ: Voodoo Graphics (tm)? 3Dfx?
739
740  6.1.  Who is 3Dfx?
741
742  3Dfx is a San Jose based manufacturer of 3D graphics accelerator
743  hardware for arcade games, game consoles, and PC boards.  Their
744  official website is www.3dfx.com. 3Dfx does not sell any boards, but
745  other companies do, e.g. Quantum3D.
746
747
748
749  6.2.  Who is Quantum3D?
750
751  Quantum3D started as a 3Dfx spin-off, manufacturing high end
752  accelerator boards based on 3Dfx chip technology for consumer and
753  business market, and supplying arcade game technology. See their home
754  page at www.quantum3d.com for additional information. For general
755  inquiries regarding Quantum3D, please send mail to info@quantum3d.
756
757
758  6.3.  What is the Voodoo Graphics (tm)?
759
760  The Voodoo Graphics (tm) is a chipset manufactured by 3Dfx. It is used
761  in hardware acceleration boards for the PC.  See the HOWTO section on
762  supported hardware.
763
764
765  6.4.  What is the Voodoo Rush (tm)?
766
767  The Voodoo Rush (tm) is a derivate of the Voodoo Graphics (tm) that
768  has an interface to cooperate with a 2D VGA video accelerator,
769  effectively supporting accelerated graphics in windows. This combo is
770  currently not supported with Linux.
771
772
773  6.5.  What is the Voodoo 2 (tm)?
774
775  The Voodoo 2 (tm) is the successor of the Voodoo Graphics (tm)
776  chipset, featuring several improvements. It is announced for late
777  March 1998, and annoucements of Voodoo 2 (tm) based boards have been
778  published e.g. by Quantum 3D, by Creative Labs, Orchid Technologies,
779  and Diamond Multimedia.
780
781  The Voodoo 2 (tm) is supposed to be backwards compatible.  However, a
782  new version of Glide will have to be ported to Linux.
783
784
785
786  6.6.  What is VGA pass-though?
787
788  The Voodoo Graphics (tm) (but not the Voodoo Rush (tm)) boards are
789  add-on boards, meant to be used with a regular 2D VGA video
790  accelerator board. In short, the video output of your regular VGA
791  board is used as input for the Voodoo Graphics (tm) based add-on
792  board, which by default passes it through to the display also
793  connected to the Voodoo Graphics (tm) board. If the Voodoo Graphics
794  (tm) is used (e.g. by a game), it will disconnect the VGA input
795  signal, switch the display to a 640x480 fullscreen mode with the
796  refresh rate configured by SST variables and the application/driver,
797  and generate the video signal itself. The VGA doesn't need to be aware
798  of this, and won't be.
799
800  This setup has several advantages: free choice of 2D VGA board, which
801  is an issue with Linux, as XFree86 drivers aren't available for all
802  chipsets and revisions, and a cost effective migration path to
803  accelerated 3D graphics. It also has several disadvantages: an
804  application using the Voodoo Graphics (tm) might not re-enable video
805  output when crashing, and regular VGA video signal deteoriates in the
806  the pass-through process.
807
808
809  6.7.  What is Texelfx or TMU?
810
811  Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipsets have two units. The first one interfaces
812  the texture memory on the board, does the texture mapping, and
813  ultimately generates the input for the second unit that interfaces the
814  framebuffer. This one is called Texelfx, aka Texture Management Unit,
815  aka TMU. The neat thing about this is that a board can use two Texelfx
816  instead of only one, like some of the Quantum3D Obsidian boards did,
817  effectively doubling the processing power in some cases, depending on
818  the application.
819
820  As each Texelfx can address 4MB texture memory, a dual Texelfx setup
821  has an effective texture cache of up to 8MB.  This can be true even if
822  only one Texelfx is actually needed by a particular application, as
823  textures can be distributed to both Texelfx, which are used depending
824  on the requested texture. Both Texelfx are used together to perform
825  certain operations as trilinear filtering and illumination
826  texture/lightmap passes (e.g. in glQuake) in a single pass instead of
827  the two passes that are required with only one Texelfx. To actually
828  exploit the theoretically available speedup and cache size increase, a
829  Glide application has to use both Texelfx properly.
830
831  The two Texelfx can not be used separately to each draw a textured
832  triangle at the same time. A triangle is always drawn using whatever
833  the current setup is, which can be to use both Texelfx for a single
834  pass operation combining two textures, or one Texelfx for only a
835  single texture. Each Texelfx can only access its own memory.
836
837
838
839  6.8.  What is a Pixelfx unit?
840
841  Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipsets have two units. The second one
842  interfaces the framebuffer and ultimately generates the depth buffer
843  and pixel color updates. This one is called Pixelfx. The neat thing
844  here is that two Pixelfx units can cooperate in SLI mode, like with
845  some of the Quantum3D Obsidian boards, effectively doubling the frame
846  rate.
847
848
849
850  6.9.  What is SLI mode?
851
852  SLI means "Scanline Interleave". In this mode, two Pixelfx are
853  connected and render in alternate turns, one handling odd, the other
854  handling even scanlines of the actual output.  Inthis mode, each
855  Pixelfx stores only half of the image and half of the depth buffer
856  data in its own local framebuffer, effectively doubling the number of
857  pixels.
858
859  The Pixelfx in question can be on the same board, or on two boards
860  properly connected. Some Quantum3D Obsidian boards support SLI with
861  Voodoo Graphics (tm).
862
863  As two cards can decode the same PCI addresses and receive the same
864  data, there is not necessarily additional bus bandwidth required by
865  SLI. On the other hand, texture data will have to be replicated on
866  both boards, thus the amount of texture memory effectively stays the
867  same.
868
869
870
871  6.10.  Is there a single board SLI setup?
872
873  There are now two types of Quantum3D SLI boards.  The intial setup
874  used two boards, two PCI slots, and an interconnect (e.g. the Obsidian
875  100-4440).  The later revision which performs identically is contained
876  on one full-length PCI board (e.g.  Obsidian 100-4440SB). Thus a
877  single board SLI solution is possible, and has been done.
878
879
880
881  6.11.  How much memory? How many buffers?
882
883  The most essential difference between different boards using the
884  Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipset is the amount and organization of memory.
885  Quantum3D used a three digit scheme to descibe boards. Here is a
886  slightly modifed one (anticipating Voodoo 2 (tm)). Note that if you
887  use more than one Texelfx, they need the same amount of texture cache
888  memory each, and if you combine two Pixelfx, each needs the same
889  amount of frame buffer memory.
890  ______________________________________________________________________
891      "SLI / Pixelfx / Texelfx1 / Texelfx2 "
892  ______________________________________________________________________
893
894
895  It means that a common 2MB+2MB board would be a 1/2/2/0 solution, with
896  the minimally required total 4Mb of memory. A Canopus Pure 3D would be
897  1/2/4/0, or 6MB. An Obsidian-2220 board with two Texelfx would be
898  1/2/2/2, and an Obsidian SLI-2440 board would be 2/2/4/4.  A fully
899  featured dual board solution (2 Pixelfx, each with 2 Texelfx and 4MB
900  frame buffer, each Texelfx 4 MB texture cache) would be 2/4/4/4, and
901  the total amount of memory would be SLI*(Pixelfx+Texelfx1+Texelfx2),
902  or 24 MB.
903
904  So there.
905
906
907  6.12.  Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) do 24 or 32 bit color?
908
909  No. The Voodoo Graphics (tm) architecture uses 16bpp internally.  This
910  is true for  Voodoo Graphics (tm), Voodoo Rush (tm) and Voodoo 2 (tm)
911  alike. Quantum3D claims to implement 22-bpp effective color depth with
912  an enhanced 16-bpp frame buffer, though.
913
914
915  6.13.  Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) store 24 or 32 bit z-buffer per
916  pixel?
917
918  No. The Voodoo Graphics (tm) architecture uses 16bpp internally for
919  the depth buffer, too. This again is true for  Voodoo Graphics (tm),
920  Voodoo Rush (tm) and Voodoo 2 (tm) alike. Again, Quantum3D claims that
921  using the floating point 16-bits per pixel (bpp) depth buffering
922  provides 22-bpp effective Z-buffer precision.
923
924
925  6.14.  What resolutions does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) support?
926
927  The Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipset supports up to 4 MB frame buffer
928  memory. Presuming double buffering and a depth buffer, a 2MB
929  framebuffer will support a resolution of 640x480.  With 4 MB frame
930  buffer, 800x600 is possible.
931
932  Unfortunately 960x720 is not supported. The Voodoo Graphics (tm)
933  chipset requires that the amount of memory for a particular resolution
934  must be such that the vertical and horizontal resolutions must be
935  evenly divisible by 32. The video refresh controller, though can
936  output any particular resolution, but the "virtual" size required for
937  the memory footprint must be in dimensions evenly divisible by 32.
938  So, 960x720 actually requires 960x736 amount of memory, and
939  960x736x2x3 = 4.04MBytes.
940
941  However, using two boards with SLI, or a dual Pixelfx SLI board means
942  that each framebuffer will only have to store half of the image. Thus
943  2 times 4 MB in SLI mode are good up to 1024x768, which is the maximum
944  because of the overall hardware design. You will be able to do
945  1024x768 tripled buffered with Z, but you will not be able to do e.g.
946  1280x960 with double buffering.
947
948  Note that triple buffering (no VSync synchonization required by the
949  application), stereo buffering (for interfacing LCD shutters) and
950  other more demanding setups will severely decrease the available
951  resolution.
952
953
954
955  6.15.  What texture sizes are supported?
956
957  The maximum texture size for the Voodoo Graphics (tm) chipset is
958  256x256, and you have to use powers of two. Note that for really small
959  textures (e.g. 16x16) you are better off merging them into a large
960  texture, and adjusting your effective texture coordinates
961  appropriately.
962
963
964  6.16.  Does the Voodoo Graphics (tm) support paletted textures?
965
966  The Voodoo Graphics (tm) hardware and Glide support the palette
967  extension to OpenGL. The most recent version of Mesa does support the
968  GL_EXT_paletted_texture and GL_EXT_shared_texture_palette extensions.
969
970
971
972  6.17.  What about overclocking?
973
974  If you want to put aside considerations about warranty and
975  overheating, and want to do overclocking to boost up performance even
976  further, there is related info out on the web. The basic mechanism is
977  to use Glide environment variables to adjust the clock.
978
979  Note that the actual recommended clock is board dependend. While the
980  default clock speed is 50 Mhz, the Diamond Monster 3D property sheet
981  lets you set up a clock of 57 MHz. It all comes down to the design of
982  a specific board, and which components are used with the Voodoo
983  Graphics (tm) chipset - most notably access speed of the RAM in
984  question. If you exceed the limits of your hardware, rendering
985  artifacts will occur to say the least. Reportedly, 57 MHz usually
986  works, while 60 MHz or more is already pushing it.
987
988  Increasing the clock frequency also means increasing the waste heat
989  disposed in the chips, in a nonlinear dependency (10% increase in
990  frequency means a lot larger increase in heating). In consequence, for
991  permanent overclocking you might want to educate yourself about ways
992  to  add cooling fans to the board in a way that does not affect
993  warranty. A very recommendable source is the "3Dfx Voodoo Heat Report"
994  by Eric van Ballegoie, available on the web.
995
996
997
998  6.18.  Where could I get additional info on Voodoo Graphics (tm)?
999
1000  There is a FAQ by 3Dfx, which should be available at their web site.
1001  You will find retail information at the following locations:
1002  www.3dfx.com and www.quantum3d.com.
1003
1004  Inofficial sites that have good info are "Voodoo Extreme" at
1005  www.ve3d.com, and "Operation 3Dfx" at www.ve3d.com.
1006
1007
1008
1009  7.  FAQ: Glide? TexUS?
1010
1011  7.1.  What is Glide anyway?
1012
1013  Glide is a proprietary API plus drivers to access 3D graphics
1014  accelerator hardware based on chipsets manufactured by 3Dfx. Glide has
1015  been developed and implemented for DOS, Windows, and Macintosh, and
1016  has been ported to Linux by Daryll Strauss.
1017
1018
1019
1020  7.2.  What is TexUS?
1021
1022  In the distribution is a libtexus.so, which is the 3Dfx Interactive
1023  Texture Utility Software.  It is an image processing libary and
1024  utility program for preparing images for use with the 3Dfx Interactive
1025  Glide library. Features of TexUS include file format conversion,
1026  MIPmap creation, and support for 3Dfx Interactive Narrow Channel
1027  Compression textures.
1028
1029  The TexUS utility program texus reads images in several popular
1030  formats (TGA, PPM, RGT), generates MIPmaps, and writes the images as
1031  3Dfx Interactive textures files (see e.g. alpha.3df, as found in the
1032  distribution) or as an image file for inspection. For details on the
1033  parameters for texus, and the API, see the TexUS documentation.
1034
1035
1036
1037  7.3.  Is Glide freeware?
1038
1039  Nope. Glide is neither GPL'ed nor subject to any other public license.
1040  See LICENSE in the distribution for any details. Effectively, by
1041  downloading and using it, you agree to the End User License Agreement
1042  (EULA) on the 3Dfx web site. Glide is provided as binary only, and you
1043  should neither use nor distribute any files but the ones released to
1044  the public, if you have not signed an NDA. The Glide distribution
1045  including the test program sources are copyrighted by 3Dfx.
1046
1047  The same is true for all the sources in the Glide distribution. In the
1048  words of 3Dfx: These are not public domain, but they can be freely
1049  distributed to owners of 3Dfx products only.  No card, No code!
1050
1051
1052  7.4.  Where do I get Glide?
1053
1054  The entire 3Dfx SDK is available for download off their public web-
1055  site located at www.3dfx.com/software/download_glide.html. Anything
1056  else 3Dfx publicly released by 3Dfx is nearby on their website, too.
1057
1058  There is also an FTP site, ftp.3dfx.com. The FTP has a longer timeout,
1059  and some of the larger files have been broken into 3 files (approx.
1060  3MB each).
1061
1062
1063
1064  7.5.  Is the Glide source available?
1065
1066  Nope. The Glide source is made available only based on a special
1067  agreement and NDA with 3Dfx.
1068
1069
1070  7.6.  Is Linux Glide supported?
1071
1072  Currently, Linux Glide is unsupported. Basically, it is provided under
1073  the same disclaimers as the 3Dfx GL DLL (see below).
1074
1075  However, 3Dfx definitely wants to provide as much support as possible,
1076  and is in the process of setting up some prerequisites. For the time
1077  being, you will have to rely on the 3Dfx newsgroup (see below).
1078
1079  In addition, the Quantum3D web page claims that Linux support (for
1080  Obsidian) is planned for both Intel and AXP architecture systems in
1081  2H97.
1082
1083
1084
1085  7.7.  Where could I post Glide questions?
1086
1087  There are newsgroups currently available only on the NNTP server
1088  news.3dfx.com run by 3Dfx.  This USENET groups are dedicated to 3Dfx
1089  and Glide in general, and will mainly provide assistance for DOS,
1090  Win95, and NT. The current list includes:
1091
1092  ______________________________________________________________________
1093  3dfx.events
1094  3dfx.games.glquake
1095  3dfx.glide
1096  3dfx.glide.linux
1097  3dfx.products
1098  3dfx.test
1099  ______________________________________________________________________
1100
1101
1102  and the 3dfx.oem.products.* group for specific boards, eg.
1103  3dfx.oem.products.quantum3d.obsidian.  Please use
1104  news.3dfx.com/3dfx.glide.linux for all Lnux Glide related questions.
1105
1106  A mailing list dedicated to Linux Glide is in preparation for 1Q98.
1107  Send mail to majordomo@gamers.org, no subject, body of the message
1108  info linux-3dfx to get information about the posting guidelines, the
1109  hypermail archive and how to subscribe to the list or the digest.
1110
1111
1112
1113  7.8.  Where to send bug reports?
1114
1115  Currently, you should rely on the newsgroup (see above), that is
1116  news.3dfx.com/3dfx.glide.linux.  There is no official support e-mail
1117  set up yet.  For questions not specific to Linux Glide, make sure to
1118  use the other newsgroups.
1119
1120
1121  7.9.  Who is maintaining it?
1122
1123  3Dfx will appoint an official maintainer soon.  Currently, inofficial
1124  maintainer of the Linux Glide port is Daryll Strauss. Please post bug
1125  reports in the newsgroup (above). If you are confident that you found
1126  a bug not previously reported, please mail to Daryll at
1127  daryll@harlot.rb.ca.us
1128
1129
1130  7.10.  How can I contribute to Linux Glide?
1131
1132  You could submit precise bug reports. Providing sample programs to be
1133  included in the distribution is another possibility. A major
1134  contribution would be adding code to the Glide based Mesa Voodoo
1135  driver source.  See section on Mesa Voodoo below.
1136
1137
1138
1139  7.11.  Do I have to use Glide?
1140
1141  Yes. As of now, there is no other Voodoo Graphics (tm) driver
1142  available for Linux. At the lowest level, Glide is the only interface
1143  that talks directly to the hardware. However, you can write OpenGL
1144  code without knowing anything about Glide, and use Mesa with the Glide
1145  based Mesa Voodoo driver.  It helps to be aware of the involvement of
1146  Glide for recognizing driver limitations and bugs, though.
1147
1148
1149
1150  7.12.  Should I program using the Glide API?
1151
1152  That depends on the application you are heading for.  Glide is a
1153  proprietary API that is partly similar to OpenGL or Mesa, partly
1154  contains features only available as EXTensions to some OpenGL
1155  implementations, and partly contains features not available anywhere
1156  but within Glide.
1157
1158  If you want to use the OpenGL API, you will need Mesa (see below).
1159  Mesa, namely the Mesa Voodoo driver, offers an API resembling the well
1160  documented and widely used OpenGL API. However, the Mesa Voodoo driver
1161  is in early alpha, and you will have to accept performance losses and
1162  lack of support for some features.
1163
1164  In summary, the decision is up to you - if you are heading for maximum
1165  performance while accepting potential problems with porting to
1166  non-3Dfx hardware, Glide is not a bad choice. If you care about
1167  maintenance, OpenGL might be the best bet in the long run.
1168
1169
1170
1171  7.13.  What is the Glide current version?
1172
1173  The current version of Linux Glide is 2.4.  The next version will
1174  probably be identical to the current version for DOS/Windows, which is
1175  2.4.3, which comes in two distributions. Right now, various parts of
1176  Glide are different for Voodoo Rush (tm) (VR) and Voodoo Graphics (tm)
1177  (VG) boards. Thus you have to pick up separate distributions (under
1178  Windows) for VR and VG.  The same will be true for Linux. There will
1179  possibly be another chunk of code and another distribution for Voodoo
1180  2 (tm) (V2) boards.
1181
1182  There is also a Glide 3.0 in preparation that will extend the API for
1183  use of triangle fans and triangle strips, and provide better state
1184  change optimization. Support for fans and strips will in some
1185  situations significantly reduce the amount of data sent ber triangle,
1186  and the Mesa driver will benefit from this, as the OpenGL API has
1187  separate modes for this. For a detailed explanation on this see e.g.
1188  the OpenGL documentation.
1189
1190
1191
1192  7.14.  Does it support multiple Texelfx already?
1193
1194  Multiple Texelfx/TMU's can be used for single pass trilinear
1195  mipmapping for improvement image quality without performance penalty
1196  in current Linux Glide already. You will need a board with two Texelfx
1197  (that is, one of the appropriate Quantum3D Obsidian boards). The
1198  application needs to specify the use of both Texelfx accordingly, it
1199  does not happen automatically.
1200
1201  Note that because most applications are implemented for consumer
1202  boards with a single Texelfx, they might not query the presence of a
1203  second Texelfx, and thus not use it. This is not a flaw of Glide but
1204  of the application.
1205
1206
1207
1208  7.15.  Is Linux Glide identical to DOS/Windows Glide?
1209
1210  The publicly available version of Linux Glide should be identical to
1211  the respective DOS/Windows versions.  Delays in releasing the Linux
1212  port of newer DOS/Windows releases are possible.
1213
1214
1215  7.16.  Where to I get information on Glide?
1216
1217  There is exhaustive information available from 3Dfx. You could
1218  download it from their home page at
1219  www.3dfx.com/software/download_glide.html.  These are for free,
1220  presuming you bought a 3Dfx hardware based board. Please read the
1221  licensing regulations.
1222
1223  Basically, you should look for some of the following:
1224
1225  o  Glide Release Notes
1226
1227  o  Glide Programming Guide
1228
1229  o  Glide Reference Manual
1230
1231  o  Glide Porting Guide
1232
1233  o  TexUs Texture Utility Software
1234
1235  o  ATB Release Notes
1236
1237  o  Installing and Using the Obsidian
1238
1239     These are available as Microsoft Word documents, and part of the
1240     Windows Glide distribution, i.e.  the self-extracting archive file.
1241     Postscript copies for separate download should be available at
1242     www.3dfx.com as well. Note that the release numbers are not always
1243     in sync with those of Glide.
1244
1245
1246
1247  7.17.  Where to get some Glide demos?
1248
1249  You will find demo sources for Glide within the distribution (test
1250  programs), and on the 3Dfx home page. The problem with the latter is
1251  that some require ATB. To port these demos to Linux, the event
1252  handling has to be completely rewritten.
1253
1254  In addition, you might find useful some of the OpenGL demo sources
1255  accompanying Mesa and GLUT. While the Glide API is different from the
1256  OpenGL API, they target the same hardware rendering pipeline.
1257
1258
1259
1260  7.18.  What is ATB?
1261
1262  Some of the 3Dfx demo programs for Glide depend not only on Glide but
1263  also on 3Dfx's proprietary Arcade Toolbox (ATB), which is available
1264  for DOS and Win32, but has not been ported for Linux. If you are a
1265  devleoper, the sources are available within the Total Immersion
1266  program, so porting ATB to Linux would be possible.
1267
1268
1269
1270  8.  FAQ: Glide and XFree86?
1271
1272
1273  8.1.  Does it run with XFree86?
1274
1275  Basically, the Voodoo Graphics (tm) hardware does not care about X.
1276  The X server will not even notice that the video signal generated by
1277  the VGA hardware does not reach the display in single screen
1278  configurations. If your application is not written X aware, Glide
1279  switching to full screen mode might cause problems (see
1280  troubleshooting section). If you do not want the overhead of writing
1281  an X11-aware application, you might want to use SVGA console mode
1282  instead.
1283
1284  So yes, it does run with XFree86, but no, it is not cooperating if you
1285  don't write your application accordingly. You can use the Mesa "window
1286  hack", which will be significantly slower than fullscreen, but still a
1287  lot faster than software rendering (see section below).
1288
1289
1290
1291  8.2.  Does it only run full screen?
1292
1293  See above. The Voodoo Graphics (tm) hardware is not window environment
1294  aware, neither is Linux Glide. Again, the experimental Mesa "window
1295  hack" covered below will allow for pasting the Voodoo Graphics (tm)
1296  board framebuffer's content into an X11 window.
1297
1298
1299
1300  8.3.  What is the problem with AT3D/Voodoo Rush (tm) boards?
1301
1302  There is an inherent problem when using Voodoo Rush (tm) boards with
1303  Linux: Basically, these boards are meant to be VGA 2D/3D accelerator
1304  boards, either as a single board solution, or with a Voodoo Rush (tm)
1305  based daughterboard used transparently. The VGA component tied to the
1306  Voodoo Rush (tm) is a Alliance Semiconductor's ProMotion-AT3D
1307  multimedia accelerator.  To use this e.g. with XFree86 at all, you
1308  need a driver for the AT3D chipset.
1309
1310  There is a mailing list on this, and a web site with FAQ at
1311  www.frozenwave.com/linux-stingray128.  Look there for most current
1312  info.  There is a SuSE maintained driver at
1313  ftp.suse.com/suse_update/special/xat3d.tgz.  Reportedly, the XFree86
1314  SVGA server also works, supporting 8, 16 and 32 bpp.  Official support
1315  will probably be in XFree86 4.0.  XFree86 decided to prepare an
1316  intermediate XFree86 3.3.2 release as well, which might already
1317  address the issues.
1318
1319  The following XF86Config settings reportedly work.
1320
1321  ______________________________________________________________________
1322  # device section settings
1323  Chipset "AT24"
1324  Videoram 4032
1325
1326  # videomodes tested by Oliver Schaertel
1327  #  25.18  28.32  for 640 x 480   (70hz)
1328  #  61.60         for 1024 x 786  (60hz)
1329  #  120           for 1280 x 1024 (66hz)
1330  ______________________________________________________________________
1331
1332
1333  In summary, there is nothing prohibiting this except for the fact that
1334  the drivers in XFree86 are not yet finished.
1335
1336  If you want a more technical explanation: Voodoo Rush (tm) support
1337  requires X server changes to support grabbing a buffer area in the
1338  video memory on the AT3D board, as the Voodoo Rush (tm) based boards
1339  need to store their back buffer and z buffer there. This  memory
1340  allocation and locking requirement is not a 3Dfx specific problem, it
1341  is also needed e.g. for support of TV capture cards, and is thus under
1342  active development for XFree86. This means changes at the device
1343  dependend X level (thus XAA), which are currently implemented as an
1344  extension to XFree86 DGA (Direct Graphics Access, an X11 extension
1345  proposal implemented in different ways by Sun and XFree86, that is not
1346  part of the final X11R6.1 standard and thus not portable). It might be
1347  part of an XFree86 GLX implementation later on. The currently
1348  distributed X servers assume they have full control of the
1349  framebuffer, and use anything that is not used by the visual region of
1350  the framebuffer as pixmap cache, e.g. for caching fonts.
1351
1352
1353
1354  8.4.  What about GLX for XFree86?
1355
1356  There are a couple of problems.
1357
1358  The currently supported Voodoo Graphics (tm) hardware and the
1359  available revision of Linux Glide are full screen only, and not set up
1360  to share a framebuffer with a window environment. Thus GLX or other
1361  integration with X11 is not yet possible.
1362
1363  The Voodoo Rush (tm) might be capable of cooperating with XFree86
1364  (that is, an SVGA compliant board will work with the XFree86 SVGA
1365  server), but it is not yet supported by Linux Glide, nor do S3 or
1366  other XFree86 servers support these boards yet.
1367
1368  In addition, GLX is tied to OpenGL or, in the Linux case, to Mesa.
1369  The XFree86 team is currently working on integrating Mesa with their X
1370  Server. GLX is in beta, XFree86 3.3 has the hooks for GLX.  See Steve
1371  Parker's GLX pages at www.cs.utah.edu/~sparker/xfree86-3d/ for the
1372  most recent information.  Moreover, there is a joint effort by XFree86
1373  and SuSe, which includes a GLX, see www.suse.de/~sim/.  Currently,
1374  Mesa still uses its GLX emulation with Linux.
1375
1376
1377
1378  8.5.  Glide and commerical X Servers?
1379
1380  I have not received any mail regarding use of Glide and/or Mesa with
1381  commercial X Servers.  I would be interested to get confirmation on
1382  this, especially on Mesa and Glide with a commercial X Server that has
1383  GLX support.
1384
1385
1386
1387  8.6.  Glide and SVGA?
1388
1389  You should have no problems running Glide based applications either
1390  single or dual screen using VGA modes. It might be a good idea to set
1391  up the 640x480 resolution in the SVGA modes, too, if you are using a
1392  single screen setup.
1393
1394
1395  8.7.  Glide and GGI?
1396
1397  A GGI driver for Glide is under development by Jon M. Taylor, but has
1398  not officially been released and was put on hold till completion of
1399  GGI 0.0.9. For information about GGI see synergy.caltech.edu/~ggi/.
1400  If you are adventurous, you might find the combination of XGGI (a GGI
1401  based X Server for XFree86) and GGI for Glide an interesting prospect.
1402  There is also a GGI driver interfacing the OpenGL API; tested with
1403  unaccelerated Mesa. Essentially, this means X11R6 running on a Voodoo
1404  Graphics (tm), using either Mesa or Glide directly.
1405
1406
1407
1408  9.  FAQ: OpenGL/Mesa?
1409
1410
1411
1412  9.1.  What is OpenGL?
1413
1414  OpenGL is an immediate mode graphics programming API originally
1415  developed by SGI based on their previous proprietary Iris GL, and
1416  became in industry standard several years ago. It is defined and
1417  maintained by the Architectural Revision Board (ARB), an organization
1418  that includes members as SGI, IBM, and DEC, and Microsoft.
1419
1420  OpenGL provides a complete feature set for 2D and 3D graphics
1421  operations in a pipelined hardware accelerated architecture for
1422  triangle and polygon rendering. In a broader sense, OpenGL is a
1423  powerful and generic toolset for hardware assisted computer graphics.
1424
1425
1426
1427  9.2.  Where to get additional information on OpenGL?
1428
1429  The official site for OpenGL maintained by the members of the ARB, is
1430  www.opengl.org,
1431
1432  A most recommended site is Mark Kilgard's Gateway to OpenGL Info at
1433  reality.sgi.com/mjk_asd/opengl-links.html: it provides pointers to
1434  book, online manual pages, GLUT, GLE, Mesa, ports to several OS, tons
1435  of demos and tools.
1436
1437  If you are interested in game programming using OpenGL, there is the
1438  OpenGL-GameDev-L@fatcity.com at Listserv@fatcity.com. Be warned, this
1439  is a high traffic list with very technical content, and you will
1440  probably prefer to use procmail to handle the 100 messages per day
1441  coming in. You cut down bandwidth using the SET OpenGL-GameDev-L
1442  DIGEST command. It is also not appropriate if you are looking for
1443  introductions.  The archive is handled by the ListServ software, use
1444  the INDEX OpenGL-GameDev-L and GET OpenGL-GameDev-L "filename"
1445  commands to get a preview before subscribing.
1446
1447
1448
1449  9.3.  Is Glide an OpenGL implementation?
1450
1451  No, Glide is a proprietary 3Dfx API which several features specific to
1452  the Voodoo Graphics (tm) and Voodoo Rush (tm). A 3Dfx OpenGL is in
1453  preparation (see below). Several Glide features would require
1454  EXTensions to OpenGL, some of which already found in other
1455  implementations (e.g. paletted textures).
1456
1457  The closest thing to a hardware accelerated Linux OpenGL you could
1458  currently get is Brian Paul's Mesa along with David Bucciarelli's Mesa
1459  Voodoo driver (see below).
1460
1461
1462
1463  9.4.  Is there an OpenGL driver from 3Dfx?
1464
1465  Both the 3Dfx website and the Quantum3D website announced OpenGL for
1466  Voodoo Graphics (tm) to be available 4Q97.  The driver is currently in
1467  Beta, and accessible only to registered deverloper's under written
1468  Beta test agreement.
1469
1470  A linux port has not been announced yet.
1471
1472
1473
1474  9.5.  Is there a commercial OpenGL for Linux and 3Dfx?
1475
1476  I am not aware of any third party commercial OpenGL that supports the
1477  Voodoo Graphics (tm). Last time I paid attention, neither MetroX nor
1478  XInside OpenGL did.
1479
1480
1481
1482  9.6.  What is Mesa?
1483
1484  Mesa is a free implementation of the OpenGL API, designed and written
1485  by Brian Paul, with contributions from many others. Its performance is
1486  competitive, and while it is not officially certified, it is an almost
1487  fully compliant OpenGL implementation conforming to the ARB
1488  specifications - more complete than some commercial products out,
1489  actually.
1490
1491
1492
1493  9.7.  Does Mesa work with 3Dfx?
1494
1495  The latest Mesa MesaVer; release works with Linux Glide 2.4. In fact,
1496  support was included in earlier versions, however, this driver is
1497  still under development, so be prepared for bugs and less than optimal
1498  performance. It is steadily improving, though, and bugs are usually
1499  fixed very fast.
1500
1501  You will need to get the Mesa library archive from the
1502  iris.ssec.wisc.edu FTP site.  It is recommended to subscribe to the
1503  mailing list as well, especially when trying to track down bugs,
1504  hardware, or driver limitations. Make sure to get the most recent
1505  distribution. A Mesa-3.0 is in preparation.
1506
1507
1508
1509  9.8.  How portable is Mesa with Glide?
1510
1511  It is available for Linux and Win32, and any application based on Mesa
1512  will only have the usual system specific code, which should usually
1513  mean XWindows vs. Windows, or GLX vs. WGL. If you use e.g. GLUT or Qt,
1514  you should get away with any system specifics at all for virtually
1515  most applications. There are only a few issues (like sampling relative
1516  mouse movement) that are not adressed by the available portable GUI
1517  toolkits.
1518
1519  Mesa/Glide is also available for DOS. The port which is 32bit DOS is
1520  maintained by Charlie Wallace and kept up to date with the main Mesa
1521  base. See www.geocities.com/~charlie_x/.for the most current releases.
1522
1523
1524
1525  9.9.  Where to get info on Mesa?
1526
1527  The Mesa home page is at www.ssec.wisc.edu/~brianp/Mesa.html.  There
1528  is an archive of the Mesa mailing list.  at www.iqm.unicamp.br/mesa/.
1529  This list is not specific to 3Dfx and Glide, but if you are interested
1530  in using 3Dfx hardware to accelerate Mesa, it is a good place to
1531  start.
1532
1533
1534  9.10.  Where to get information on Mesa Voodoo?
1535
1536  For latest information on the Mesa Voodoo driver maintained by David
1537  Bucciarelli tech.hmw@plus.it see the home page at www-
1538  hmw.caribel.pisa.it/fxmesa/.
1539
1540  9.11.  Does Mesa support multitexturing?
1541
1542  Not yet (as of Mesa 2.6), but it is on the list.  In Mesa you will
1543  probably have to use the OpenGL EXT_multitexture extension once it is
1544  available. There is no final specification for multitextures in
1545  OpenGL, which is supposed to be part of the upcoming OpenGL 1.2
1546  revision. There might be a Glide driver specific implementation of the
1547  extension in upcoming Mesa releases, but as long as only certain
1548  Quantum3D Obsidian boards come with multiple TMU's, it is not a top
1549  priority. This will surely change once Voodoo 2 (tm) based boards are
1550  in widespread use.
1551
1552
1553
1554  9.12.  Does Mesa support single pass trilinear mipmapping?
1555
1556  Multiple TMU's should be used for single pass trilinear mipmapping for
1557  improvement image quality without performance penalty in current Linux
1558  Glide already. Mesa support is not yet done (as of Mesa 2.6), but is
1559  in preparation.
1560
1561
1562
1563  9.13.  What is the Mesa "Window Hack"?
1564
1565  The most recent revisions of Mesa contain an experimental feature for
1566  Linux XFree86. Basically, the GLX emulation used by Mesa copies the
1567  contents of the Voodoo Graphics (tm) board's most recently finished
1568  framebuffer content into video memory on each glXSwapBuffers call.
1569  This feature is also available with Mesa for Windows.
1570
1571  This obviously puts some drain on the PCI, doubled by the fact that
1572  this uses X11 MIT SHM, not XFree86 DGA to access the video memory. The
1573  same approach could theoretically be used with e.g. SVGA. The major
1574  benefit is that you could use a Voodoo Graphics (tm) board for
1575  accelerated rendering into a window, and that you don't have to use
1576  the VGA passthrough mode (video output of the VGA board deteoriates in
1577  passing through, which is very visible with high end monitors like
1578  e.g. EIZO F784-T).
1579
1580  Note that this experimental feature is NOT Voodoo Rush (tm) support by
1581  any means. It applies only to the Voodoo Graphics (tm) based boards.
1582  Moreover, you need to use a modified GLUT, as interfacing the window
1583  management system and handling the events appropriately has to be done
1584  by the application, it is not handled in the driver.
1585
1586  Make really sure that you have enabled the following environment
1587  variables:
1588
1589  ______________________________________________________________________
1590  export SST_VGA_PASS=1          # to stop video signal switching
1591  export SST_NOSHUTDOWN=1        # to stop video signal switching
1592  export MESA_GLX_FX="window"    # to initiate Mesa window mode
1593  ______________________________________________________________________
1594
1595
1596  If you manage to forget one of the SST variables, your VGA board will
1597  be shut off, and you will loose the display (but not the actual X). It
1598  is pretty hard to get that back being effectively blind.
1599
1600  Finally, note that the libMesaGL.a (or .so) library can contain
1601  multiple client interfaces.  I.e. the GLX, OSMesa, and fxMesa (and
1602  even SVGAMesa) interfaces call all be compiled into the same
1603  libMesaGL.a. The client program can use any of them freely, even
1604  simultaneously if it's careful.
1605
1606
1607
1608  9.14.  How about GLUT?
1609
1610  Mark Kilgard's GLUT distribution is a very good place to get sample
1611  applications plus a lot of useful utilities.  You will find it at
1612  reality.sgi.com/mjk_asd/glut3/, and you should get it anyway. The
1613  current release is GLUT 3.6, and discussion on a GLUT 3.7 (aka
1614  GameGLUT) has begun. Note that Mark Kilgard has left SGI recently, so
1615  the archive might move some time this year - for the time being it
1616  will be kept at SGI.
1617
1618  There is also a GLUT mailing list, glut@perp.com. Send mail to
1619  majordomo@perp.com, with the (on of the) following in the body of your
1620  email message:
1621
1622  ______________________________________________________________________
1623     help
1624     info glut
1625     subscribe glut
1626     end
1627  ______________________________________________________________________
1628
1629
1630
1631  As GLUT handles double buffers, windows, events, and other operations
1632  closely tied to hardware and operating system, using GLUT with Voodoo
1633  Graphics (tm) requires support, which is currently in development
1634  within GLX for Mesa. It already works for most cases.
1635
1636
1637
1638  10.  FAQ: But Quake?
1639
1640  10.1.  What about that 3Dfx GL driver for Quake?
1641
1642  The 3Dfx Quake GL, aka mini-driver, aka miniport, aka Game GL, aka
1643  3Dfx GL alpha, implemented only a Quake-specific subset of OpenGL (see
1644  http://www.cs.unc.edu/~martin/3dfx.html for an inofficial list of
1645  supported code paths). It is not supported, and not updated anymore.
1646  It was a Win32 DLL (opengl32.dll) released by 3Dfx and was available
1647  for Windows only. This DLL is not, and will not be ported to Linux.
1648
1649
1650  10.2.  Is there a 3Dfx based glQuake for Linux?
1651
1652  Yes. A Quake linuxquake v0.97 binary has been released based on Mesa
1653  with Glide. The Quake2 q2test binary for Linux and Voodoo Graphics
1654  (tm) has been made available as well.  A full Quake2 for Linux was
1655  released in January 1998, with linuxquake2-3.10. Dave "Zoid" Kirsch is
1656  the official maintainer of all Linux ports of Quake, Quakeworld, and
1657  Quake2, including all the recent Mesa based ports. Note that all Linux
1658  ports, including the Mesa based ones, are not officially supported by
1659  id Software.
1660
1661  See ftp.idsoftware.com/idstuff/quake/unix/ for the latest releases.
1662
1663
1664
1665  10.3.  Does glQuake run in an XFree86 window?
1666
1667  A revision of Mesa and the Mesa-based Linux glQuake is in preparation.
1668  Mesa already does support this by GLX, but Linux glQuake does not use
1669  GLX.
1670
1671
1672
1673  10.4.  Known Linux Quake problems?
1674
1675  Here is an excerpt, as of January 7th, 1998. I omitted most stuff not
1676  specific to &3Dfx; hardware.
1677
1678  o  You really should run Quake2 as root when using the SVGALib and/or
1679     GL renders. You don't have to run as root for the X11 refresh, but
1680     the modes on the mouse and sound devices must be read/writable by
1681     whatever user you run it as. Dedicated server requires no special
1682     permissions.
1683
1684  o  X11 has some garbage on the screen when 'loading'. This is normal
1685     in 16bit color mode. X11 doesn't work in 24bit (TrueColor). It
1686     would be very slow in any case.
1687
1688  o  Some people are experiencing crashes with the GL renderer. Make
1689     sure you install the libMesa that comes with Quake2! Older versions
1690     of libMesa don't work properly.
1691
1692  o  If you are experience video 'lag' in the GL renderer (the frame
1693     rate feels like it's lagging behind your mouse movement) type
1694     "gl_finish 1" in the console. This forces update on a per frame
1695     basis.
1696
1697  o  When running the GL renderer, make sure you have killed selection
1698     and/or gpm or the mouse won't work as they won't "release" it while
1699     Quake2 is running in GL mode.
1700
1701
1702  10.5.  Know Linux Quake security problems?
1703
1704  As Dave Kirsch posted on January 28th, 1998: an exploit for Quake2
1705  under Linux has been published. Quake2 is using shared libraries.
1706  While the READMRE so far does not specifically mention it, note that
1707  Quake2 should not be setuid.
1708
1709  If you want to use the ref_soft and ref_gl renderers, you should run
1710  Quake2  as root. Do not make the binary setuid. You can only run both
1711  those renderers at the console only, so being root is not that much of
1712  an issue.
1713
1714  The X11 render does not need any root permissions (if /dev/dsp is
1715  writable by others for sound).  The dedicated server mode does not
1716  need to be root either, obviously.
1717
1718  Problems such as root requirements for games has been sort of a sore
1719  spot in Linux for a number of years now. This is one of the goals that
1720  e.g. GGI is targetting to fix.  A ref_ggi might be supported in the
1721  near future.
1722
1723
1724  10.6.  Does LinuxQuake use multitexturing?
1725
1726  To my understadnding, glQuake will use a multitexture EXTension if the
1727  OpenGL driver in question offers it.  The current Mesa implementation
1728  and the Glide driver for Linux do not yet support this extension, so
1729  for the time being the answer is no. See section on Mesa and
1730  multitexturing for details.
1731  10.7.  Where can I get current information on Linux glQuake?
1732
1733  Try some of these sites: the "The Linux Quake Resource" at
1734  linuxquake.telefragged.com, or the "Linux Quake Page" at
1735  www.planetquake.com/threewave/linux/.  Alternatively, you could look
1736  for Linux Quake sites in the "SlipgateCentral" database at
1737  www.slipgatecentral.com.
1738
1739
1740
1741  11.  FAQ: Troubleshooting?
1742
1743  11.1.  Has this hardware been tested?
1744
1745  See hardware requirements list above. I currently do not maintain a
1746  conclusive list of vendors and boards, as no particular board specific
1747  problems have been verified.  Currently, only 3Dfx and Quantum3D
1748  provide boards for testing to the developers, so Quantum3D consumer
1749  boards are a safe bet. Every other Voodoo Graphics (tm) based board
1750  should work, too. I have reports regarding the Orchid Righteous 3D,
1751  Guillemot Maxi 3D Gamer, and Diamond Monster 3D.
1752
1753  If you are a board manufacturer who wants to make sure his Voodoo
1754  Graphics (tm), Voodoo Rush (tm) or Voodoo 2 (tm) boards work with
1755  upcoming releases of Linux, Xfree86, Linux Glide and/or Mesa, please
1756  contact me, and I will happily forward your request to the persons
1757  maintaining the drivers in question. If you are interested in support
1758  for Linux Glide on other then the PC platfrom, e.g. DEC Alpha, please
1759  contact the maintainer of Linux Glide Daryll Strauss, at
1760  daryll@harlot.rb.ca.us
1761
1762
1763
1764  11.2.  Failed to change I/O privilege?
1765
1766  You need to be root, or setuid your application to run a Glide based
1767  application.  For DMA, the driver accesses /dev/mem, which is not
1768  writeable for anybody but root, with good reasons. See the README in
1769  the Glide distribution for Linux.
1770
1771
1772
1773  11.3.  Does it work without root privilege?
1774
1775  There are compelling case where the setuid requirement is a problem,
1776  obviously. There are currently solutions in preparation, which require
1777  changes to the library internals itself.
1778
1779
1780
1781  11.4.  Displayed images looks awful (single screen)?
1782
1783  If you are using the analog pass through configuration, the common
1784  SVGA or X11 display might look pretty bad.  You could try to get a
1785  better connector cable than the one provided with the accelerator
1786  board (the ones delivered with the Diamond Monster 3D are reportedly
1787  worse then the one accompanying the Orchid Righteous 3D), but up to a
1788  degree there will inevitably be signal loss with an additional
1789  transmission added.
1790
1791  If the 640x480 full screen image created by the accelerator board does
1792  look awful, this might indicate a real hardware problem. You will have
1793  to contact the board manufacturer, not 3Dfx for details, as the
1794  quality of the video signal has nothing to do with the accelerator -
1795  the board manufacturer chooses the RAMDAC, output drivers, and other
1796  components responsible.
1797
1798
1799
1800  11.5.  The last frame is still there (single or dual screen)?
1801
1802  You terminated your application with Ctrl-C, or it did not exit
1803  normally. The accelerator board will dutifully provide the current
1804  content of the framebuffer as a video signal unless told otherwise.
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810  AN FOR THE HUNGARIANS
1811     A NEW GERMAN WORD
1812     UNCONSCIOUS PLAGIARISM
1813     THE WEATHER
1814     THE BABIES
1815     OUR CHILDREN AND GREAT DISCOVERIES
1816     EDUCATING THEATRE-GOERS
1817     THE EDUCATIONAL THEATRE
1818     POETS AS POLICEMEN
1819     PUDD'NHEAD WILSON DRAMATIZED
1820     DALY THEATRE
1821     THE DRESS OF CIVILIZED WOMAN
1822     DRESS REFORM AND COPYRIGHT
1823     COLLEGE GIRLS
1824     GIRLS
1825     THE LADIES
1826     WOMAN'S PRESS CLUB
1827     VOTES FOR WOMEN
1828     WOMAN-AN OPINION
1829     ADVICE TO GIRLS
1830     TAXES AND MORALS
1831     TAMMANY AND CROKER
1832     MUNICIPAL CORRUPTION
1833     MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
1834     CHINA AND THE PHILIPPINES
1835     THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL MORALS
1836     LAYMAN'S SERMON
1837     UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT SOCIETY
1838     PUBLIC EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
1839     EDUCATION AND CITIZENSHIP
1840     COURAGE
1841     THE DINNER TO MR. CHOATE
1842     ON STANLEY AND LIVINGSTONE
1843     HENRY M. STANLEY
1844     DINNER TO MR. JEROME
1845     HENRY IRVING
1846     DINNER TO HAMILTON W. MABIE
1847     INTRODUCING NYE AND RILEY
1848     DINNER TO WHITELAW REID
1849     ROGERS AND RAILROADS
1850     THE OLD-FASHIONED PRINTER
1851     SOCIETY OF AMERICAN AUTHORS
1852     READING-ROOM OPENING
1853     LITERATURE
1854     DISAPPEARANCE OF LITERATURE
1855     THE NEW YORK PRESS CLUB DINNER
1856     THE ALPHABET AND SIMPLIFIED SPELLING
1857     SPELLING AND PICTURES
1858     BOOKS AND BURGLARS
1859     AUTHORS' CLUB
1860     BOOKSELLERS
1861     "MARK TWAIN's FIRST APPEARANCE"
1862     MORALS AND MEMORY
1863     QUEEN VICTORIA
1864     JOAN OF ARC
1865     ACCIDENT INSURANCE--ETC.
1866     OSTEOPATHY
1867     WATER-SUPPLY
1868     MISTAKEN IDENTITY
1869     CATS AND CANDY
1870     OBITUARY POETRY
1871     CIGARS AND TOBACCO
1872     BILLIARDS
1873     THE UNION RIGHT OR WRONG?
1874     AN IDEAL FRENCH ADDRESS
1875     STATISTICS
1876     GALVESTON ORPHAN BAZAAR
1877     SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE
1878     CHARITY AND ACTORS
1879     RUSSIAN REPUBLIC
1880     RUSSIAN SUFFERERS
1881     WATTERSON AND TWAIN AS REBELS
1882     ROBERT FULTON FUND
1883     FULTON DAY, JAMESTOWN
1884     LOTOS CLUB DINNER IN HONOR OF MARK TWAIN
1885     COPYRIGHT
1886     IN AID OF THE BLIND
1887     DR. MARK TWAIN, FARMEOPATH
1888     MISSOURI UNIVERSITY SPEECH
1889     BUSINESS
1890     CARNEGIE THE BENEFACTOR
1891     ON POETRY, VERACITY, AND SUICIDE
1892     WELCOME HOME
1893     AN UNDELIVERED SPEECH
1894     SIXTY-SEVENTH BIRTHDAY
1895     TO THE WHITEFRIARS
1896     THE ASCOT GOLD CUP
1897     THE SAVAGE CLUB DINNER
1898     GENERAL MILES AND THE DOG
1899     WHEN IN DOUBT, TELL THE TRUTH
1900     THE DAY WE CELEBRATE
1901     INDEPENDENCE DAY
1902     AMERICANS AND THE ENGLISH
1903     ABOUT LONDON
1904     PRINCETON
1905     THE ST. LOUIS HARBOR-BOAT "MARK TWAIN"
1906     SEVENTIETH BIRTHDAY
1907MARK TWAIN'S LETTERS 1853-1910
1908     ARRANGED WITH COMMENT BY ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE
1909A BOY'S LIFE OF MARK TWAIN, BY ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE
1910MARK TWAIN, A BIOGRAPHY, BY ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917               THE COMPLETE PROJECT GUTENBERG MARK TWAIN
1918
1919
1920
1921INNOCENTS ABROAD
1922
1923by Mark Twain
1924
1925
1926[From an 1869--1st Edition]
1927
1928
1929
1930                                CONTENTS
1931
1932
1933                                CHAPTER I.
1934Popular Talk of the Excursion--Programme of the Trip--Duly Ticketed for
1935the Excursion--Defection of the Celebrities
1936
1937                               CHAPTER II.
1938Grand Preparations--An Imposing Dignitary--The European Exodus--
1939Mr. Blucher's Opinion--Stateroom No. 10--The Assembling of the Clans--
1940At Sea at Last
1941
1942                               CHAPTER III.
1943"Averaging" the Passengers--Far, far at Sea.--Tribulation among the
1944Patriarchs--Seeking Amusement under Difficulties--Five Captains in the
1945Ship
1946
1947                               CHAPTER IV.
1948The Pilgrims Becoming Domesticated--Pilgrim Life at Sea--"Horse-
1949Billiards"--The "Synagogue"--The Writing School--Jack's "Journal"--
1950The "Q. C. Club"--The Magic Lantern--State Ball on Deck--Mock Trials--
1951Charades--Pilgrim Solemnity--Slow Music--The Executive Officer Delivers
1952an Opinion
1953
1954                                CHAPTER V.
1955Summer in Mid-Atlantic--An Eccentric Moon--Mr. Blucher Loses Confidence
1956--The Mystery of "Ship Time"--The Denizens of the Deep--"Land Hoh"--
1957The First Landing on a Foreign Shore--Sensation among the Natives--
1958Something about the Azores Islands--Blucher's Disastrous Dinner--
1959The Happy Result
1960
1961                               CHAPTER VI.
1962Solid Information--A Fossil Community--Curious Ways and Customs--Jesuit
1963Humbuggery--Fantastic Pilgrimizing--Origin of the Russ Pavement--
1964Squaring Accounts with the Fossils--At Sea Again
1965
1966                               CHAPTER VII.
1967A Tempest at Night--Spain and Africa on Exhibition--Greeting a Majestic
1968Stranger--The Pillars of Hercules--The Rock of Gibraltar--Tiresome
1969Repetition--"The Queen's Chair"--Serenity Conquered--Curiosities of
1970the Secret Caverns--Personnel of Gibraltar--Some Odd Characters--A
1971Private Frolic in Africa--Bearding a Moorish Garrison (without loss of
1972life)--Vanity Rebuked--Disembarking in the Empire of Morocco
1973
1974                              CHAPTER VIII.
1975The Ancient City of Tangier, Morocco--Strange Sights--A Cradle of
1976Antiquity--We become Wealthy--How they Rob the Mail in Africa--The Danger
1977of being Opulent in Morocco
1978
1979                               CHAPTER IX.
1980A Pilgrim--in Deadly Peril--How they Mended the Clock--Moorish
1981Punishments for Crime--Marriage Customs--Looking Several ways for Sunday
1982--Shrewd, Practice of Mohammedan Pilgrims--Reverence for Cats--Bliss of
1983being a Consul-General
1984
1985                                CHAPTER X.
1986Fourth of July at Sea--Mediterranean Sunset--The "Oracle" is Delivered
1987of an Opinion--Celebration Ceremonies--The Captain's Speech--France in
1988Sight--The Ignorant Native--In Marseilles--Another Blunder--Lost in
1989the Great City--Found Again--A Frenchy Scene
1990
1991                               CHAPTER XI.
1992Getting used to it--No Soap--Bill of Fare, Table d'hote--"An American
1993Sir"--A Curious Discovery--The "Pilgrim" Bird--Strange Companionship--
1994A Grave of the Living--A Long Captivity--Some of Dumas' Heroes--Dungeon
1995of the Famous "Iron Mask."
1996
1997                               CHAPTXR XII.
1998A Holiday Flight through France--Summer Garb of the Landscape--Abroad
1999on the Great Plains--Peculiarities of French Cars--French Politeness
2000American Railway Officials--"Twenty Mnutes to Dinner!"--Why there
2001are no Accidents--The "Old Travellers"--Still on the Wing--Paris at
2002Last----French Order and Quiet--Place of the Bastile--Seeing the Sights--
2003A Barbarous Atrocity--Absurd Billiards
2004
2005                              CHAPTER XIII.
2006More Trouble--Monsieur Billfinger--Re-Christening the Frenchman--In the
2007Clutches of a Paris Guide--The International Exposition--Fine Military
2008Review--Glimpse of the Emperor Napoleon and the Sultan of Turkey
2009
2010                               CHAPTER XIV.
2011The Venerable Cathedral of Notre-Dame--Jean Sanspeur's Addition--
2012Treasures and Sacred Relics--The Legend of the Cross--The Morgue--The
2013Outrageious 'Can-Can'--Blondin Aflame--The Louvre Palace--The Great Park
2014--Showy Pageantry--Preservation of Noted Things
2015
2016                               CHAPTER XV.
2017French National Burying--Ground--Among the Great Dead--The Shrine of
2018Disappointed Love--The Story of Abelard and Heloise--"English Spoken
2019Here"--"American Drinks Compounded Here"--Imperial Honors to an
2020American--The Over-estimated Grisette--Departure from Paris--A Deliberate
2021Opinion Concerning the Comeliness of American Women
2022
2023                               CHAPTER XVI.
2024Versailles--Paradise Regained--A Wonderful Park--Paradise Lost--
2025Napoleonic Strategy
2026
2027                              CHAPTER XVII.
2028War--The American Forces Victorious--" Home Again"--Italy in Sight
2029The "City of Palaces"--Beauty of the Genoese Women--The "Stub-Hunters"--
2030Among the Palaces--Gifted Guide--Church Magnificence--"Women not
2031Admitted"--How the Genoese Live--Massive Architecture--A Scrap of Ancient
2032History--Graves for 60,000
2033
2034                              CHAPTER XVIII.
2035Flying Through Italy--Marengo--First Glimpse of the Famous Cathedral--
2036Description of some of its Wonders--A Horror Carved in Stone----An
2037Unpleasant Adventure--A Good Man--A Sermon from the Tomb--Tons of Gold
2038and Silver--Some More Holy Relics--Solomon's Temple
2039
2040                               CHAPTER XIX
2041"Do You Wiz zo Haut can be?"--La Scala--Petrarch and Laura--Lucrezia
2042Borgia--Ingenious Frescoes--Ancient Roman Amphitheatre--A Clever
2043Delusion--Distressing Billiards--The Chief Charm of European Life--An
2044Italian Bath--Wanted: Soap--Crippled French--Mutilated English--The Most
2045Celebrated Painting in the World--Amateur Raptures--Uninspired Critics--
2046Anecdote--A Wonderful Echo--A Kiss for a Franc
2047
2048                                CHAPTER XX
2049Rural Italy by Rail--Fumigated, According to Law--The Sorrowing
2050Englishman--Night by the Lake of Como--The Famous Lake--Its Scenery--
2051Como compared with Tahoe--Meeting a Shipmate
2052
2053                               CHAPTER XXI.
2054The Pretty Lago di Lecco--A Carriage Drive in the Country--Astonishing
2055Sociability in a Coachman--Sleepy Land--Bloody Shrines--The Heart and
2056Home of Priestcraft--A Thrilling Mediaeval Romance--The Birthplace of
2057Harlequin--Approaching Venice
2058
2059                              CHAPTER XXII.
2060Night in Venice--The "Gay Gondolier"--The Grand Fete by Moonlight--
2061The Notable Sights of Venice--The Mother of the Republics Desolate
2062
2063                              CHANTER XXIII.
2064The Famous Gondola--The Gondola in an Unromantic Aspect--The Great Square
2065of St. Mark and the Winged Lion--Snobs, at Home and Abroad--Sepulchres of
2066the Great Dead--A Tilt at the "Old Masters"--A Contraband Guide--
2067The Conspiracy--Moving Again
2068
2069                              CHAPTER XXIV.
2070Down Through Italy by Rail--Idling in Florence--Dante and Galileo--An
2071Ungrateful City--Dazzling Generosity--Wonderful Mosaics--The Historical
2072Arno--Lost Again--Found Again, but no Fatted Calf Ready--The Leaning
2073Tower of Pisa--The Ancient Duomo--The Old Original First Pendulum that
2074Ever Swung--An Enchanting Echo--A New Holy Sepulchre--A Relic of
2075Antiquity--A Fallen Republic--At Leghorn--At Home Again, and Satisfied,
2076on Board the Ship--Our Vessel an Object of Grave Suspicion--Garibaldi
2077Visited--Threats of Quarantine
2078
2079                               CHAPTER XXV.
2080The Works of Bankruptcy--Railway Grandeur--How to Fill an Empty
2081Treasury--The Sumptuousness of Mother Church--Ecclesiastical Splendor--
2082Magnificence and Misery--General Execration--More Magnificence
2083A Good Word for the Priests--Civita Vecchia the Dismal--Off for Rome
2084
2085                              CHAPTER XXVI.
2086The Modern Roman on His Travels--The Grandeur of St. Peter's--Holy Relics
2087--Grand View from the Dome--The Holy Inquisition--Interesting Old Monkish
2088Frauds--The Ruined Coliseum--The Coliseum in the Days of its Prime--
2089Ancient Playbill of a Coliseum Performance--A Roman Newspaper Criticism
20901700 Years Old
2091
2092                              CHAPTER XXVII.
2093"Butchered to Make a Roman Holiday"--The Man who Never Complained--
2094An Exasperating Subject--Asinine Guides--The Roman Catacombs
2095The Saint Whose Fervor Burst his Ribs--The Miracle of the Bleeding Heart
2096--The Legend of Ara Coeli
2097
2098                             CHAPTER XXVIII.
2099Picturesque Horrors--The Legend of Brother Thomas--Sorrow Scientifically
2100Analyzed--A Festive Company of the Dead--The Great Vatican Museum
2101Artist Sins of Omission--The Rape of the Sabines--Papal Protection of
2102Art--High Price of "Old Masters"--Improved Scripture--Scale of Rank
2103of the Holy Personages in Rome--Scale of Honors Accorded Them---
2104Fossilizing--Away for Naples
2105
2106                              CHAPTER XXIX.
2107Naples--In Quarantine at Last--Annunciation--Ascent of Mount Vesuvius--A
2108Two Cent Community--The Black Side of Neapolitan Character--Monkish
2109Miracles--Ascent of Mount Vesuvius Continued--The Stranger and the
2110Hackman--Night View of Naples from the Mountain-side---Ascent of Mount
2111Vesuvius Continued
2112
2113                               CHAPTER XXX.
2114Ascent of Mount Vesuvius Continued--Beautiful View at Dawn--Less
2115Beautiful in the Back Streets--Ascent of Vesuvius Continued--Dwellings a
2116Hundred Feet High--A Motley Procession--Bill of Fare for a Peddler's
2117Breakfast--Princely Salaries--Ascent of Vesuvius Continued--An Average of
2118Prices--The wonderful "Blue Grotto"--Visit to Celebrated Localities in
2119the Bay of Naples--The Poisoned "Grotto of the Dog"--A Petrified Sea of
2120Lava--Ascent of Mount Vesuvius Continued--The Summit Reached--Description
2121of the Crater--Descent of Vesuvius
2122
2123                              CHAPTER XXXI.
2124The Buried City of Pompeii--How Dwellings Appear that have been
2125Unoccupied for Eighteen hundred years--The Judgment Seat--Desolation--The
2126Footprints of the Departed--"No Women Admitted"--Theatres, Bakeshops,
2127Schools--Skeletons preserved by the Ashes and Cinders--The Brave Martyr
2128to Duty--Rip Van Winkle--The Perishable Nature of Fame
2129
2130                              CHAPTER XXXII.
2131At Sea Once More--The Pilgrims all Well--Superb Stromboli--Sicily by
2132Moonlight--Scylla and Charybdis--The "Oracle" at Fault--Skirting the
2133Isles of Greece Ancient Athens--Blockaded by Quarantine and Refused
2134Permission to Enter--Running the Blockade--A Bloodless Midnight
2135Adventure--Turning Robbers from Necessity--Attempt to Carry the Acropolis
2136by Storm--We Fail--Among the Glories of the Past--A World of Ruined
2137Sculpture--A Fairy Vision--Famous Localities--Retreating in Good Order
2138--Captured by the Guards--Travelling in Military State--Safe on Board
2139Again
2140
2141                             CHAPTER XXXIII.
2142Modern Greece--Fallen Greatness--Sailing Through the Archipelago and the
2143Dardanelles--Footprints of History--The First Shoddy Contractor of whom
2144History gives any Account--Anchored Before Constantinople--Fantastic
2145Fashions--The Ingenious Goose-Rancher--Marvelous Cripples--The Great
2146Mosque--The Thousand and One Columns--The Grand Bazaar of Stamboul
2147
2148                              CHAPTER XXXIV.
2149Scarcity of Morals and Whiskey--Slave-Girl Market Report--Commercial
2150Morality at a Discount--The Slandered Dogs of Constantinople--
2151Questionable Delights of Newspaperdom in Turkey--Ingenious Italian
2152Journalism--No More Turkish Lunches Desired--The Turkish Bath Fraud--
2153The Narghileh Fraud--Jackplaned by a Native--The Turkish Coffee Fraud
2154
2155                              CHAPTER XXXV.
2156Sailing Through the Bosporus and the Black Sea--"Far-Away Moses"--
2157Melancholy Sebastopol--Hospitably Received in Russia--Pleasant English
2158People--Desperate Fighting--Relic Hunting--How Travellers Form "Cabinets"
2159
2160                              CHAPTER XXXVI.
2161Nine Thousand Miles East--Imitation American Town in Russia--Gratitude
2162that Came Too Late--To Visit the Autocrat of All the Russias
2163
2164                             CHAPTER XXXVII.
2165Summer Home of Royalty--Practising for the Dread Ordeal--Committee on
2166Imperial Address--Reception by the Emperor and Family--Dresses of the
2167Imperial Party--Concentrated Power--Counting the Spoons--At the Grand
2168Duke's--A Charming Villa--A Knightly Figure--The Grand Duchess--A Grand
2169Ducal Breakfast--Baker's Boy, the Famine-Breeder--Theatrical Monarchs a
2170Fraud--Saved as by Fire--The Governor--General's Visit to the Ship--
2171Official "Style"--Aristocratic Visitors--"Munchausenizing" with Them--
2172Closing Ceremonies
2173
2174                             CHAPTER XXXVIII.
2175Return to Constantinople--We Sail for Asia--The Sailors Burlesque the
2176Imperial Visitors--Ancient Smyrna--The "Oriental Splendor" Fraud--
2177The "Biblical Crown of Life"--Pilgrim Prophecy-Savans--Sociable
2178Armenian Girls--A Sweet Reminiscence--"The Camels are Coming, Ha-ha!"
2179
2180                              CHAPTER XXXIX.
2181Smyrna's Lions--The Martyr Polycarp--The "Seven Churches"--Remains of the
2182Six Smyrnas--Mysterious Oyster Mine Oysters--Seeking Scenery--A Millerite
2183Tradition--A Railroad Out of its Sphere
2184
2185                               CHAPTER XL.
2186Journeying Toward Ancient Ephesus--Ancient Ayassalook--The Villanous
2187Donkey--A Fantastic Procession--Bygone Magnificence--Fragments of
2188History--The Legend of the Seven Sleepers
2189
2190                               CHAPTER XLI.
2191Vandalism Prohibited--Angry Pilgrims--Approaching Holy Land!--The "Shrill
2192Note of Preparation"--Distress About Dragomans and Transportation--
2193The "Long Route" Adopted--In Syria--Something about Beirout--A Choice
2194Specimen of a Greek "Ferguson"--Outfits--Hideous Horseflesh--Pilgrim
2195"Style"--What of Aladdin's Lamp?
2196
2197                              CHAPTER XLII.
2198"Jacksonville," in the Mountains of Lebanon--Breakfasting above a Grand
2199Panorama--The Vanished City--The Peculiar Steed, "Jericho"--The Pilgrims
2200Progress--Bible Scenes--Mount Hermon, Joshua's Battle Fields, etc.--
2201The Tomb of Noah--A Most Unfortunate People
2202
2203                              CHAPTER XLIII.
2204Patriarchal Customs--Magnificent Baalbec--Description of the Ruins--
2205Scribbling Smiths and Joneses--Pilgrim Fidelity to the Letter of the Law
2206--The Revered Fountain of Baalam's Ass
2207
2208                              CHAPTER XLIV.
2209Extracts from Note-Book--Mahomet's Paradise and the Bible's--Beautiful
2210Damascus the Oldest City on Earth--Oriental Scenes within the Curious Old
2211City--Damascus Street Car--The Story of St. Paul--The "Street called
2212Straight"--Mahomet's Tomb and St. George's--The Christian Massacre--
2213Mohammedan Dread of Pollution--The House of Naaman--
2214The Horrors of Leprosy
2215
2216                               CHAPTER XLV.
2217The Cholera by way of Variety--Hot--Another Outlandish Procession--Pen
2218and-Ink Photograph of "Jonesborough," Syria--Tomb of Nimrod, the Mighty
2219Hunter--The Stateliest Ruin of All--Stepping over the Borders of Holy-
2220Land--Bathing in the Sources of Jordan--More "Specimen" Hunting--Ruins of
2221Cesarea--Philippi--"On This Rock Will I Build my Church"--The People the
2222Disciples Knew--The Noble Steed "Baalbec"--Sentimental Horse Idolatry of
2223the Arabs
2224
2225                              CHAPTER XLVI.
2226Dan--Bashan--Genessaret--A Notable Panorama--Smallness of Palestine--
2227Scraps of History--Character of the Country--Bedouin Shepherds--Glimpses
2228of the Hoary Past--Mr. Grimes's Bedouins--A Battle--Ground of Joshua--
2229That Soldier's Manner of Fighting--Barak's Battle--The Necessity of
2230Unlearning Some Things--Desolation
2231
2232                              CHAPTER XLVII.
2233"Jack's Adventure"--Joseph's Pit--The Story of Joseph--Joseph's
2234Magnanimity and Esau's--The Sacred Lake of Genessaret--Enthusiasm of the
2235Pilgrims--Why We did not Sail on Galilee--About Capernaum--Concerning the
2236Saviour's Brothers and Sisters--Journeying toward Magdela
2237
2238                             CHAPTER XLVIII.
2239Curious Specimens of Art and Architecture--Public Reception of the
2240Pilgrims--Mary Magdalen's House--Tiberias and its Queer Inhabitants--
2241The Sacred Sea of Galilee--Galilee by Night
2242
2243                              CHAPTER XLIX.
2244The Ancient Baths--Ye Apparition--A Distinguished Panorama--The Last
2245Battle of the Crusades--The Story of the Lord of Kerak--Mount Tabor--
2246What one Sees from its Top--Memory of a Wonderful Garden--The House of
2247Deborah the Prophetess
2248
2249                                CHAPTER L.
2250Toward Nazareth--Bitten By a Camel--Grotto of the Annunciation, Nazareth
2251--Noted Grottoes in General--Joseph's Workshop--A Sacred Bowlder--
2252The Fountain of the Virgin--Questionable Female Beauty--
2253Literary Curiosities
2254
2255                               CHAPTER LI.
2256Boyhood of the Saviour--Unseemly Antics of Sober Pilgrims--Home of the
2257Witch of Endor--Nain--Profanation--A Popular Oriental Picture--Biblical
2258Metaphors Becoming steadily More Intelligible--The Shuuem Miracle--
2259The "Free Son of The Desert"--Ancient Jezrael--Jehu's Achievements--
2260Samaria and its Famous Siege
2261
2262                               CHAPTER LII
2263Curious Remnant of the Past--Shechem--The Oldest "First Family" on Earth
2264--The Oldest Manuscript Extant--The Genuine Tomb of Joseph--Jacob's Well
2265--Shiloh--Camping with the Arabs--Jacob's Ladder--More Desolation--
2266Ramah, Beroth, the Tomb of Samuel, The Fountain of Beira--Impatience--
2267Approaching Jerusalem--The Holy City in Sight--Noting Its Prominent
2268Features--Domiciled Within the Sacred Walls
2269
2270                              CHAPTER LIII.
2271"The Joy of the Whole Earth"--Description of Jerusalem--Church of the
2272Holy Sepulchre--The Stone of Unction--The Grave of Jesus--Graves of
2273Nicodemus and Joseph of Armattea--Places of the Apparition--The Finding
2274of the There Crosses----The Legend--Monkish Impostures--The Pillar of
2275Flagellation--The Place of a Relic--Godfrey's Sword--"The Bonds of
2276Christ"--"The Center of the Earth"--Place whence the Dust was taken of
2277which Adam was Made--Grave of Adam--The Martyred Soldier--The Copper
2278Plate that was on the Cross--The Good St. Helena--Place of the Division
2279of the Garments--St. Dimas, the Penitent Thief--The Late Emperor
2280Maximilian's Contribution--Grotto wherein the Crosses were Found, and the
2281Nails, and the Crown of Thorns--Chapel of the Mocking--Tomb of
2282Melchizedek--Graves of Two Renowned Crusaders--The Place of the
2283Crucifixion
2284
2285                               CHAPTER LIV.
2286The "Sorrowful Way"--The Legend of St. Veronica's Handkerchief--
2287An Illustrious Stone--House of the Wandering Jew--The Tradition of the
2288Wanderer--Solomon's Temple--Mosque of Omar--Moslem Traditions--"Women not
2289Admitted"--The Fate of a Gossip--Turkish Sacred Relics--Judgment Seat of
2290David and Saul--Genuine Precious Remains of Solomon's Temple--Surfeited
2291with Sights--The Pool of Siloam--The Garden of Gethsemane and Other
2292Sacred Localities
2293
2294                               CHAPTER LV.
2295Rebellion in the Camp--Charms of Nomadic Life--Dismal Rumors--En Route
2296for Jericho and The Dead Sea--Pilgrim Strategy--Bethany and the Dwelling
2297of Lazarus--"Bedouins!"--Ancient Jericho--Misery--The Night March--
2298The Dead Sea--An Idea of What a "Wilderness" in Palestine is--The Holy
2299hermits of Mars Saba--Good St. Saba--Women not Admitted--Buried from the
2300World for all Time--Unselfish Catholic Benevolence--Gazelles--The Plain
2301of the Shepherds--Birthplace of the Saviour, Bethlehem--Church of the
2302Nativity--Its Hundred Holy Places--The Famous "Milk" Grotto--Tradition--
2303Return to Jerusalem--Exhausted
2304
2305                               CHAPTER LVI.
2306Departure from Jerusalem--Samson--The Plain of Sharon--Arrival at Joppa--
2307Horse of Simon the Tanner--The Long Pilgrimage Ended--Character of
2308Palestine Scenery--The Curse
2309
2310                              CHAPTER LVII.
2311The Happiness of being at Sea once more--"Home" as it is in a Pleasure
2312Ship--"Shaking Hands" with the Vessel--Jack in Costume--His Father's
2313Parting Advice--Approaching Egypt--Ashore in Alexandria--A Deserved
2314Compliment for the Donkeys--Invasion of the Lost Tribes of America--End
2315of the Celebrated "Jaffa Colony"--Scenes in Grand Cairo--Shepheard's
2316Hotel Contrasted with a Certain American Hotel--Preparing for the
2317Pyramids
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322需芁甚于AT3D芯片组的驱劚。
2323
2324  有关于这䞪邮件列衚并圚眑站提䟛FAQ
2325  www.frozenwave.com/linux-stingray128 。看看有没有最新
2326  信息。有圚SuSE的绎技叞机
2327  ftp.suse.com/suse_update/special/xat3d.tgz 。据了解 XFree86的
2328  SVGA服务噚也适甚支持8,16和32 BPP 。官方支持
2329  可胜是XFree86的4.0 。 XFree86的决定准倇
2330  侭问的XFree86 3.3.2版本以及这​​可胜已经
2331  解决这些问题。
2332
2333Xūyào yòng yú AT3D xīnpiàn zǔ de qūdòng.
2334
2335  Yǒu guānyú zhÚge yóujiàn liÚbiǎo, bìng zài wǎngzhàn tígōng FAQ
2336  www.Frozenwave.Com/linux-stingray128. Kàn kàn yǒu méiyǒu zuìxÄ«n
2337  xìnxÄ«. Yǒu zài SuSE de wéihù sÄ«jÄ«
2338  ftp.Suse.Com/suse_update/special/xat3d.Tgz. Jù liǎojiě, XFree86 de
2339  SVGA fúwùqì yě shìyòng, zhÄ«chí 8,16 hé 32 BPP. Guānfāng zhÄ«chí
2340  kěnéng shì XFree86 de 4.0. XFree86 de juédìng zhǔnbÚi
2341  zhōngjiān de XFree86 3.3.2 Bǎnběn, yǐjí, zhÚ​​kěnéng yǐjÄ«ng
2342  jiějué zhÚxiē wÚntí.
2343
2344
2345  流浪者 - 所眗闚圣殿 - 奥马尔枅真寺 - 穆斯林䌠统 - “女人䞍
2346坊蚀“ - 䞀䞪八半的呜运 - 土耳其舍利子 - 的审刀台
2347倧卫和玢尔 - 所眗闚圣殿的正版珍莵遗存 - 蜻信
2348䞎景点 - 西眗亚池 - 客西马尌和其他的花园
2349圣各地
2350
2351                               ç« LV。
2352叛乱的倧本营 - 惚淡的䌠闻 -   - 枞牧生掻魅力航路
2353对杰里科和死海 - 朝圣战略 - 䌯倧尌和䜏宅
2354拉撒路 - “莝郜因人” - 叀杰里科 - 苊隟 - 倜March--
2355死海 - 䞀䞪什么样的“原野”圚巎勒斯坊是䞀种思想 - 神圣
2356奜圣萚巎 -   - 火星萚巎隐士劇女未被圕取 - 从埋
2357䞖界所有的时闎 - 无私倩䞻教仁 - 矚矊 - 平原
2358教堂 - 牧矊人 - 救䞖䞻䌯利恒的诞生地
2359诞生 - 它的癟圣地 - 著名的“牛奶”石窟 -  Tradition--
2360回到耶路撒冷 - 耗尜
2361
2362                               ç« LVI。
2363萚姆森 -   - 沙韙的平原 - 从耶路撒冷出发抵蟟Joppa--
2364西闚马唐纳 - 挫长的朝圣端 - 的性栌
2365巎勒斯坊风景 - 诅咒
2366
2367                              第五十䞃章。
2368“家”因䞺它是䞀䞪快乐 - 关于圚海䞊再䞀次的幞犏
2369船舶 - “握手”的船 - 杰克服装 - 他的父亲
2370䞎别赠蚀 - 走近埃及 - 䞊岞亚历山倧 - 圓之无愧
2371恭绎的驎 - 矎囜倱去的郚萜入䟵 - 完
2372圚场景匀眗倧 -   - 谢菲尔執的著名的“雅法殖民地”的
2373酒店有䞀定的矎囜酒店观照 - 倇战
2374金字塔
2375
2376Liúlàng zhě - suǒluómén shÚng diàn - ào mǎ'ěr qÄ«ngzhēnsì - mùsÄ«lín chuántǒng - “nǚrén bù
2377tǎnyán “ - yÄ«gÚ bāguà de mìngyùn - tǔ'ěrqí shÚlì zi - de shěnpàn tái
2378dà wÚi hé suǒ ěr - suǒluómén shÚng diàn de zhÚngbǎn zhēnguì yícún - qÄ«ngxìn
2379yǔ jǐngdiǎn - xÄ« luōyàchí - kÚ xÄ« mǎ ní hé qítā de huāyuán
2380shÚng gÚdì
2381
2382                               zhāng LV.
2383Pànluàn de dàběnyíng - cǎndàn de chuánwén -   - yóumù shēnghuó mÚilì hánglù
2384duì jié lǐ kē hé sǐhǎi - cháoshÚng zhànlÌÚ - bó dà ní hé zhùzhái
2385lā sā lù - “bÚi dōu yÄ«n rén!” - Gǔ jié lǐ kē - kǔnàn - yÚ March--
2386sǐhǎi - yÄ«gÚ shénme yàng de “yuányě” zài bālÚsÄ«tǎn shì yÄ« zhǒng sÄ«xiǎng - shénshÚng
2387hǎo shÚng sà bā -   - huǒxÄ«ng sà bā yǐnshì fùnǚ wÚi bÚi lùqǔ - cóng mái
2388shìjiÚ suǒyǒu de shíjiān - wúsÄ« tiānzhǔjiào rén - língyáng - píngyuán
2389jiàotáng - mùyáng rén - jiùshìzhǔ, bólìhéng de dànshēng dì
2390dànshēng - tā de bǎi shÚngdì - zhùmíng de “niúnǎi” shíkÅ« -  Tradition--
2391huí dào yēlùsālěng - hào jìn
2392
2393                               zhāng LVI.
2394Sà mǔ sēn -   - shālóng de píngyuán - cóng yēlùsālěng chÅ«fā dǐdá Joppa--
2395xīmén mǎ táng nà - màncháng de cháoshÚng duān - dì xìnggé
2396bālÚsÄ«tǎn fēngjǐng - zǔzhòu
2397
2398                              dì wǔshíqÄ« zhāng.
2399“Jiā”, yÄ«nwÚi tā shì yÄ«gÚ kuàilÚ - guānyú zài hǎishàng zài yÄ«cì de xìngfú
2400chuánbó - “wòshǒu” de chuán - jiékÚ fúzhuāng - tā de fùqÄ«n
2401línbié zÚngyán - zǒu jìn āijí - shàng'àn yàlìshāndà - dāngzhÄ«wúkuì
2402gōngwéi de lǘ - měiguó shīqù de bùluò rùqīn - wán
2403zài chǎngjǐng kāiluó dà -   - xiÚ fēi'ěrdé de zhùmíng de “yǎ fǎ zhímíndì” de
2404jiǔdiàn yǒu yÄ«dìng dì měiguó jiǔdiàn guānzhào - bÚizhàn
2405jīnzìtǎ
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412Wanderer - Templi Salomonis - Mosque of Liber - Moslem Traditions - "mulieres non
2413Admitti "- fata rumor - Sacrisque Reliquiis Turca - tribunal
2414Saul David - Sincerus templum Salomonis gloriosa reliquiae - crapulatus
2415cum visibilibus - natatoriam Siloae - Et horto Gethsemani
2416Sacra Localities
2417
2418                               Caput LV.
2419Rebellione in castra - grata lustrisque - Dismal rumoribus - En Route
2420nam et in Jericho cludentur mari - Strategy Peregrinorum - Bethaniam, et tabernaculi
2421Lazari - "Bedouins!" - Antiquae urbis Jericho - Miser - The March--
2422In Mare Mortuum - idea "desertum" est Palaestinae - Sanctus
2423Eremitarum Saba Mars - Bonum Saba S. - Women non admittitur - et sepeliebatur
2424In totum tempus mundi - Catholic gratuitae benevolentiam - Gazelles - in campo
2425pastorum - Salvator genitus Bethlehem - Ecclesia
2426Nativitas - centum sanctam - inclyta "lac" Grotto - Tradition--
2427Ierusalem, convertere ad - Lassus
2428
2429                               CAPUT LVI.
2430De egressu ab Jerusalem, - Samson - campestria in caulas - Arrival at Joppa--
2431Simonis coriarii equitum - in longinqua peregrinatione ended - caractere
2432Palestine Miscellaneous - The Column
2433
2434                              CAPUT LVII.
2435Cum mare rursus ad beatitudinem - "Domus" est in voluptate
2436O - "ebrias manus" cum vase - Jack in Ornatu - Patris
2437Dividentes Consultum - Accedens Aegyptum - Ashore in Alexandria - digna
2438Honorificum asinos - Incursio de tribus Natus Americae - End
2439De celebri "Joppen coloniam" - Map of Cairo in Maximo - pastoris sui
2440Quidam contra American Hotel Hotel - Praeparans pro
2441pyramides
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