Changes between Version 3 and Version 4 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
Jun 6, 2017, 5:30:40 PM (2 years ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v3 v4  
    1 = Tracd =
     1= Tracd
    22
    33Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
    44It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    55
    6 == Pros ==
     6== Pros
    77
    88 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
     
    1010 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    1111
    12 == Cons ==
     12== Cons
    1313
    1414 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1515 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    16    or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    17 
    18 == Usage examples ==
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     17
     18== Usage examples
    1919
    2020A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
    21 {{{
     21{{{#!sh
    2222 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2323}}}
    24 Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
    25 {{{
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
     25{{{#!sh
    2626 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2727}}}
    2828With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    29 {{{
     29{{{#!sh
    3030 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    3131}}}
     
    3535
    3636An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
    37 {{{
     37{{{#!sh
    3838 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
    3939}}}
    4040
    41 To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
    42 
    43 == Installing as a Windows Service ==
    44 
    45 === Option 1 ===
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service
     44
     45=== Option 1
    4646To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
    47 {{{
     47{{{#!cmd
    4848 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
    4949 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     
    5454
    5555If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
    56 {{{
     56{{{#!cmd
    5757 sc config tracd start= auto
    5858}}}
     
    7474
    7575For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
    76 {{{
     76{{{#!cmd
    7777"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
    78 
    7978net start tracd
    8079}}}
    8180
    82 === Option 2 ===
     81=== Option 2
    8382
    8483Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
    8584
    86 == Using Authentication ==
     85=== Option 3
     86
     87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     88{{{#!sh
     89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     90$ net start tracd
     91}}}
     92
     93== Using Authentication
     94
     95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
     96
     97{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     98**Attention:** Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
     99}}}
    87100
    88101Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
    89102
    90103The general format for using authentication is:
    91 {{{
     104{{{#!sh
    92105 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
    93106}}}
     
    105118Examples:
    106119
    107 {{{
     120{{{#!sh
    108121 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    109122   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     
    111124
    112125Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
    113 {{{
     126{{{#!sh
    114127 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    115128   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     
    119132
    120133Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
    121 {{{
     134{{{#!sh
    122135 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    123136   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     
    125138}}}
    126139
    127 === Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     140=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
    128141This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
    129142
     143  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     144  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     145  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     146
    130147To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
    131 {{{
     148{{{#!sh
    132149 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
    133150}}}
    134151then for additional users:
    135 {{{
     152{{{#!sh
    136153 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
    137154}}}
    138155
    139156Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
    140 {{{
    141  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     157{{{#!sh
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
    142159}}}
    143160
    144161For example:
    145 {{{
    146  $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     162{{{#!sh
     163 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
    147164}}}
    148165''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
    149166
    150 === Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
     167=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
    151168
    152169If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
    153170
    154 Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    155 
    156 === Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
    157 
    158 Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://www.4webhelp.net/us/password.php online HTTP Password generator].  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system.
    159 
    160 You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
    161 
    162 {{{
    163 #!python
    164 from optparse import OptionParser
    165 # The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
    166 try:
    167     from hashlib import md5
    168 except ImportError:
    169     from md5 import md5
    170 realm = 'trac'
    171 
    172 # build the options
    173 usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
    174 parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
    175 parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
    176                   help="the username for whom to generate a password")
    177 parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    178                   help="the password to use")
    179 parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
    180                   help="the realm in which to create the digest")
    181 (options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    182 
    183 # check options
    184 if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    185    parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
    186 if (options.realm is not None):
    187    realm = options.realm
    188    
    189 # Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    190 kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    191 print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    192 }}}
    193 
    194 Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
    195 
    196 {{{
    197  $ python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
    198  $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     171Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     172
     173=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     174
     175Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     176
     177Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
     178{{{#!sh
     179$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
     180$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
     181}}}
     182
     183{{{#!sh
     184$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
     185$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
    199186}}}
    200187
    201188==== Using `md5sum`
    202189It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
    203 {{{
    204  $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest
    205 }}}
    206 and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'.
    207 
    208 == Reference ==
     190{{{#!sh
     191user=
     192realm=
     193password=
     194path_to_file=
     195echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     196}}}
     197
     198== Reference
    209199
    210200Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     
    222212  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
    223213                        the host name or IP address to bind to
    224   --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp
     214  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
    225215  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
    226   --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version (default)
    227   --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.0
     216  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     217  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
    228218  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
    229219                        parent directory of the project environments
     
    232222  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
    233223  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
    234 }}}
    235 
    236 == Tips ==
    237 
    238 === Serving static content ===
     224  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     225  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     226  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     227                        octal notation (default 022)
     228  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     229  --user=USER           the user to run as
     230}}}
     231
     232Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     233
     234== Tips
     235
     236=== Serving static content
    239237
    240238If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     
    247245Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    248246the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    249 which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
    250 
    251  ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     247which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
    252248
    253249=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     
    261257See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
    262258
    263 === Serving a different base path than / ===
     259=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     260It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     261
     262Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     263
     264First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     265
     266{{{#!apache
     267<Location /project/proxified>
     268        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     269        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     270        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     271        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     272        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     273</Location>
     274}}}
     275
     276Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     277{{{#!python
     278from trac.core import *
     279from trac.config import BoolOption
     280from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     281
     282class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     283
     284    implements(IAuthenticator)
     285
     286    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     287               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     288                (''since ??.??').""")
     289
     290    def authenticate(self, req):
     291        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     292            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     293        return None
     294
     295}}}
     296
     297Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     298{{{#!ini
     299[trac]
     300...
     301obey_remote_user_header = true
     302...
     303}}}
     304
     305Run tracd:
     306{{{#!sh
     307tracd -p 8101 -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     308}}}
     309
     310Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     311
     312Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     313{{{#!ini
     314[components]
     315remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     316[inherit]
     317plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     318[trac]
     319obey_remote_user_header = true
     320}}}
     321
     322Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     323{{{#!ini
     324[inherit]
     325file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     326}}}
     327
     328=== Serving a different base path than /
    264329Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
    265 {{{
     330{{{#!sh
    266331 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
    267332}}}